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Recent Publications

  • Lennartz S.T, Marandino C.A, von Hobe M., Andreae M.O, Aranami K., Atlas E., Berkelhammer M., Bingemer H., Booge D., Cutter G. et al..  2020.  Marine carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2): a compilation of measurements in seawater and the marine boundary layer. 12:591-609.
    Abstract Summary:

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) are volatile sulfur gases that are naturally formed in seawater and exchanged with the atmosphere. OCS is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, and CS2 is its most important precursor. They have attracted increased interest due to their direct (OCS) or indirect (CS2 via oxidation to OCS) contribution to the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer. Furthermore, OCS serves as a proxy to...

  • Couto N., Alford MH, MacKinnon J., Mickett J.B.  2020.  Mixing rates and bottom drag in Bering Strait. 50:809-825.
    Abstract Summary:

    Three shipboard survey lines were occupied in Bering Strait during autumn of 2015, where high-resolution measurements of temperature, salinity, velocity, and turbulent dissipation rates were collected. These first-reported turbulence measurements in Bering Strait show that dissipation rates here are high even during calm winds. High turbulence in the strait has important implications for the modification of water properties during transit...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among seven of the ten Halobatinae genera (Heteroptera: Gerridae) based on COI+II, 16S rRNA, and 28S rRNA genes. Our analyses recovered monophyly of Halobatinae, and suggested paraphyly of Metrocorini caused by the position of Ventidius and Esakia. Since our phylogenies did not infer monophyly of the subgenus Halobates (s.str.) within Halobatini, we synonymized Austrobates and Halobates (...

  • Jinadasa S.UP, Pathirana G., Ranasinghe P.N, Centurioni L, Hormann V..  2020.  Monsoonal impact on circulation pathways in the Indian Ocean. 39:103-112.
    Abstract Summary:

    Monsoon driven water mass exchange between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and Arabian Sea (AS) is the common experience. However, it is not yet firmly confirmed that the exchange pathway is either passing through southern tip of Sri Lanka or Palk Strait. Local circulation patterns impact the pathways followed by the East Indian Coastal Currents (EICC) that drive exchange, thereby modulating mixing and water mass transformation in the Bay of Bengal...

  • Das I., Padman L., Bell R.E, Fricker H.A, Tinto K.J, Hulbe C.L, Siddoway C.S, Dhakal T., Frearson N.P, Mosbeux C. et al..  2020.  Multidecadal basal melt rates and structure of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using airborne ice penetrating radar. 125
    Abstract Summary:

    Basal melting of ice shelves is a major source of mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. In situ measurements of ice shelf basal melt rates are sparse, while the more extensive estimates from satellite altimetry require precise information about firn density and characteristics of near-surface layers. We describe a novel method for estimating multidecadal basal melt rates using airborne ice penetrating radar data acquired during a 3-year...

  • Barnes JJ, McCubbin FM, Santos AR, Day JMD, Boyce JW, Schwenzer SP, Ott U, Franchi IA, Messenger S, Anand M et al..  2020.  Multiple early-formed water reservoirs in the interior of Mars.
    Abstract Summary:

    The abundance and distribution of water within Mars through time plays a fundamental role in constraining its geological evolution and habitability. The isotopic composition of Martian hydrogen provides insights into the interplay between different water reservoirs on Mars. However, D/H (deuterium/hydrogen) ratios of Martian rocks and of the Martian atmosphere span a wide range of values. This has complicated identification of distinct water...

  • Dee S.G, Cobb KM, Emile-Geay J., Ault T.R, Edwards RL, Cheng H, Charles CD.  2020.  No consistent ENSO response to volcanic forcing over the last millennium. 367:1477-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) shapes global climate patterns yet its sensitivity to external climate forcing remains uncertain. Modeling studies suggest that ENSO is sensitive to sulfate aerosol forcing associated with explosive volcanism but observational support for this effect remains ambiguous. Here, we used absolutely dated fossil corals from the central tropical Pacific to gauge ENSO's response to large volcanic eruptions of...

  • Sibert E.C, Zill M.E, Frigyik E.T, Norris RD.  2020.  No state change in pelagic fish production and biodiversity during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. 13:238-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) boundary (~33.9 million years ago) has been described as a state change in the Earth system marked by the permanent glaciation of Antarctica and a proposed increase in oceanic productivity. Here we quantified the response of fish production and biodiversity to this event using microfossil fish teeth (ichthyoliths) in seven deep-sea sediment cores from around the world. Ichthyolith accumulation rate (a proxy for fish...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Classical ocean acoustic experiments involve the use of synchronized arrays of sensors. However, the need to cover large areas and/or the use of small robotic platforms has evoked interest in single-hydrophone processing methods for localizing a source or characterizing the propagation environment. One such processing method is "warping," a non-linear, physics-based signal processing tool dedicated to decomposing multipath features of low-...

  • Li Y.Y, Yu H.B, Zhang Y., Leao T., Glukhov E., Pierce M.L, Zhang C., Kim H, Mao H.H, Fang F. et al..  2020.  Pagoamide A, a cyclic depsipeptide isolated from a cultured marine chlorophyte, Derbesia sp., using MS/MS-based molecular networking. 83:617-625.
    Abstract Summary:

    A thiazole-containing cyclic depsipeptide with 11 amino acid residues, named pagoamide A (1), was isolated from laboratory cultures of a marine Chlorophyte, Derbesia sp. This green algal sample was collected from America Samoa, and pagoamide A was isolated using guidance by MS/MS-based molecular networking. Cultures were grown in a light- and temperature-controlled environment and harvested after several months of growth. The planar structure...

  • Nguyen P., Shearer E.J, Ombadi M., Gorooh V.A, Hsu K., Sorooshian S., Logan W.S, Ralph M..  2020.  PERSIANN Dynamic Infrared-Rain Rate Model (PDIR) for high-resolution, real-time satellite precipitation estimation. 101:E286-E302.
    Abstract Summary:

    Precipitation measurements with high spatiotemporal resolution are a vital input for hydrometeorological and water resources studies; decision-making in disaster management; and weather, climate, and hydrological forecasting. Moreover, real-time precipitation estimation with high precision is pivotal for the monitoring and managing of catastrophic hydroclimate disasters such as flash floods, which frequently transpire after extreme rainfall....

  • Glowacki O., Deane GB.  2020.  Quantifying iceberg calving fluxes with underwater noise. 14:1025-1042.
    Abstract Summary:

    Accurate estimates of calving fluxes are essential in understanding small-scale glacier dynamics and quantifying the contribution of marine-terminating glaciers to both eustatic sea-level rise (SLR) and the freshwater budget of polar regions. Here we investigate the application of acoustical oceanography to measure calving flux using the underwater sounds of iceberg-water impact. A combination of time-lapse photography and passive acoustics...

  • Li J.T, Mara P., Schubotz F., Sylvan J.B, Burgaud G., Klein F., Beaudoin D., Wee S.Y, Dick H.JB, Lott S. et al..  2020.  Recycling and metabolic flexibility dictate life in the lower oceanic crust. 579:250-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The lithified lower oceanic crust is one of Earth's last biological frontiers as it is difficult to access. It is challenging for microbiota that live in marine subsurface sediments or igneous basement to obtain sufficient carbon resources and energy to support growth(1-3) or to meet basal power requirements(4) during periods of resource scarcity. Here we show how limited and unpredictable sources of carbon and energy dictate survival...

  • Murray J.R, Bartlow N., Bock Y, Brooks B.A, Foster J., Freymueller J., Hammond W.C, Hodgkinson K., Johanson I., Lopez-Venegas A. et al..  2020.  Regional global navigation satellite system networks for crustal deformation monitoring. 91:552-572.
    Abstract Summary:

    Regional networks of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations cover seismically and volcanically active areas throughout the United States. Data from these networks have been used to produce high-precision, three-component velocity fields covering broad geographic regions as well as position time series that track time-varying crustal deformation. This information has contributed to assessing interseismic strain accumulation and...

  • Ropert-Coudert Y., Van de Putte A.P, Reisinger R.R, Bornemann H., Charrassin J.B, Costa D.P, Danis B., Huckstadt L.A, Jonsen I.D, Lea M.A et al..  2020.  The retrospective analysis of Antarctic tracking data project. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The Retrospective Analysis of Antarctic Tracking Data (RAATD) is a Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research project led jointly by the Expert Groups on Birds and Marine Mammals and Antarctic Biodiversity Informatics, and endorsed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. RAATD consolidated tracking data for multiple species of Antarctic meso- and top-predators to identify Areas of Ecological Significance...

  • Thode A.M, Blackwell S.B, Conrad A.S, Kim K.H, Marques T., Thomas L., Oedekoven C.S, Harris D., Broker K..  2020.  Roaring and repetition: How bowhead whales adjust their call density and source level (Lombard effect) in the presence of natural and seismic airgun survey noisea). 147:2061-2080.
    Abstract Summary:

    Over 500 000 automated and manual acoustic localizations, measured over seven years between 2008 and 2014, were used to examine how natural wind-driven noise and anthropogenic seismic airgun survey noise influence bowhead whale call densities (calls/km(2)/min) and source levels during their fall migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Noise masking effects, which confound measurements of behavioral changes, were removed using a modified point...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We evaluate a recent region-specific model of export production (Kelly a al., 2018) and some similar fits to in situ data for the California Current Ecosystem using satellite data. The model is a simple linear function of net primary productivity (NPP): Export = 0.08 x NPP + 72 where EF is export flux in mg C m(-2) d(-1). We confirm that contrary to several global algorithms export efficiency (e-ratio = export/primary productivity) is...

  • Simonis A.E, Forney KA, Rankin S., Ryan J., Zhang Y.W, DeVogelaere A., Joseph J., Margolina T., Krumpel A., Baumann-Pickering S..  2020.  Seal bomb noise as a potential threat to Monterey Bay harbor porpoise. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    Anthropogenic noise is a known threat to marine mammals. Decades of research have shown that harbor porpoises are particularly sensitive to anthropogenic noise, and geographic displacement is a common impact from noise exposure. Small, localized populations may be particularly vulnerable to impacts associated with displacement, as animals that are excluded from their primary habitat may have reduced foraging success and survival, or be...

  • Xue L., Johnson C.W, Fu Y.N, Burgmann R..  2020.  Seasonal seismicity in the western branch of the East African Rift System. 47
    Abstract Summary:

    Surface load variations from large water bodies alter the state of stress on faults and potentially affect earthquake nucleation processes. We report observational evidence for seasonal variations of seismicity on the border faults of the western branch in the East African Rift System. Relying on water level changes of Lake Victoria and the surrounding rift lakes and soil moisture from the Global Land Data Assimilation System model, we...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Seasonality and formation of barrier layers (BLs) and associated temperature inversions (TIs) in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean were investigated using raw and gridded Argo profiling float data, satellite data, and various sea surface flux data. BLs were observed frequently in boreal summer and autumn along the sea surface salinity (SSS) front south of the eastern Pacific fresh pool. TIs were found within the gap between the western...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The Inner California Borderlands is a complex margin where sediment delivery to the basin floor is largely routed through canyon-channel-gully systems. Using nested geophysical surveys, piston and gravity cores from the Eastern Gulf of Santa Catalina, this study compares two canyon systems and investigates how tectonics, shelf width, gradient, and autogenic processes influence turbidite emplacement timing and grain size. One end-member canyon...

  • Healy T.M, Burton RS.  2020.  Strong selective effects of mitochondrial DNA on the nuclear genome. 117:6616-6621.
    Abstract Summary:

    Oxidative phosphorylation, the primary source of cellular energy in eukaryotes, requires gene products encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. As a result, functional integration between the genomes is essential for efficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation. Although within populations this integration is presumably maintained by coevolution, the importance of mitonuclear coevolution in key biological processes such as...

  • Carvalho F., Fitzsimmons J.N, Couto N., Waite N., Gorbunov M., Kohut J., Oliver M.J, Sherrell R.M, Schofield O..  2020.  Testing the Canyon Hypothesis: Evaluating light and nutrient controls of phytoplankton growth in penguin foraging hotspots along the West Antarctic Peninsula. 65:455-470.
    Abstract Summary:

    Biological hotspots along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are characterized by high phytoplankton productivity and biomass as well as spatially focused penguin foraging activity. While unique physical concentrating processes were identified in one of these hotspots, understanding the mechanisms driving the blooms at these locations is of high importance. Factors posited to explain the blooms include the upwelling of macronutrient- and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We present the thermochemical evolution of a downward crystallizing basal magma ocean (BMO) overlying the liquid outer core and probe its capability to dissipate enough power to generate and sustain an early dynamo. A total of 61 out of 112 scenarios for a BMO with imposed, present-day heat flux, Q(BMO). values of 15, 18, and 21 TW and radiogenic heat, Q(r), values of 4, 8, and 12 TW fully crystallized during the age of the Earth. Most of...

  • Keller L., Canuto K.M, Liu C.X, Suzuki B.M, Almaliti J., Sikandar A., Naman C.B, Glukhov E., Luo D.M, Duggan BM et al..  2020.  Tutuilamides A-C: Vinyl-chloride-containing cyclodepsipeptides from marine cyanobacteria with potent elastase inhibitory properties. 15:751-757.
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been shown to possess an enormous capacity to produce structurally diverse natural products that exhibit a broad spectrum of potent biological activities, including cytotoxic, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. Using mass-spectrometryguided fractionation together with molecular networking, cyanobacterial field collections from American Samoa and Palmyra Atoll...

  • Slater D.A, Felikson D., Straneo F, Goelzer H., Little C.M, Morlighem M., Fettweis X., Nowicki S..  2020.  Twenty-first century ocean forcing of the Greenland ice sheet for modelling of sea level contribution. 14:985-1008.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changes in ocean temperature and salinity are expected to be an important determinant of the Greenland ice sheet's future sea level contribution. Yet, simulating the impact of these changes in continental-scale ice sheet models remains challenging due to the small scale of key physics, such as fjord circulation and plume dynamics, and poor understanding of critical processes, such as calving and submarine melting. Here we present the ocean...

  • Ruhl H.A, Bahr F.L, Henson S.A, Hosking W.B, Espinola B., Kahru M, Daniel P., Drake P., Edwards C.A.  2020.  Understanding the remote influences of ocean weather on the episodic pulses of particulate organic carbon flux. 173
    Abstract Summary:

    The biological carbon pump has been estimated to export similar to 5-15 Gt C yr(-1) into the deep ocean, and forms the principal deep-sea food resource. Irregular, intense pulses of particulate organic carbon (POC) have been found to make up about one-third of the overall POC fluxes at a long-term deep-sea research station influenced by coastal upwelling of the California Current, Station M (34 degrees 50/N, 123 degrees W, 4000 m depth)....

  • Sanchez-Moreno E.M, Calvo-Rathert M., Goguitchaichvili A., Tauxe L, Vashakidze G.T, Lebedev V.A.  2020.  Weak palaeointensity results over a Pliocene volcanic sequence from Lesser Caucasus (Georgia): transitional record or time averaged field? 220:1604-1618.
    Abstract Summary:

    A palaeointensity study has been carried out on a Pliocene sequence of 20 consecutive lava flows where previous directional results seem to reflect anomalous behaviour of the Earth's magnetic field (EMF), which can be explained by a polarity transition record or non-averaged palaeosecular variation or both. Here, we perform a total of 55 palaeointensity determinations using the original Thellier-Thellier (TT) method and 100 with the IZZI...

  • Porreca M., Fabbrizzi A., Azzaro S., Pucci S., Del Rio L., Pierantoni P.P, Giorgetti C., Roberts G., Barchi M.R.  2020.  3D geological reconstruction of the M. Vettore seismogenic fault system (Central Apennines, Italy): Cross-cutting relationship with the M. Sibillini thrust. 131
    Abstract Summary:

    The 2016-2017 Amatrice-Norcia seismic sequence was triggered by the reactivation of a complex NNW-SSE trending, WSW-dipping normal fault system cross-cutting the Umbria-Marche fold and thrust belt near M. Vettore. This fault system produced clear and impressive co-seismic ruptures on normal faults in the hangingwall of the M. Sibillini thrust, whereas ruptures in the footwall were observed, but less clear. As a result, a strong controversy...

  • Hell M.C, Schneider T., Li C..  2020.  Atmospheric circulation response to short-term Arctic warming in an idealized model. 77:531-549.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent Arctic sea ice loss in fall has been posited to drive midlatitude circulation changes into winter and even spring. Past work has shown that sea ice loss can indeed trigger a weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex, which can lead to delayed surface weather changes. But the mechanisms of such changes and their relevant time scales have remained unclear. This study uses large ensembles of idealized GCM simulations to identify how and...

  • Stone R.E, Reynolds C.A, Doyle J.D, Langland R.H, Baker N.L, Lavers D.A, Ralph FM.  2020.  Atmospheric river reconnaissance observation impact in the Navy global forecast system. 148:763-782.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers, often associated with impactful weather along the west coast of North America, can be a challenge to forecast even on short time scales. This is attributed, at least in part, to the scarcity of eastern Pacific in situ observations. We examine the impact of assimilating dropsonde observations collected during the Atmospheric River (AR) Reconnaissance 2018 field program on the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM)...

  • Yao Y., Zhang Q.M, Becker J.M, Merrifield M.A.  2020.  Boussinesq modeling of wave processes in field fringing reef environments. 95
    Abstract Summary:

    Boussinesq modeling of wave transformation over coral reefs to date focuses mainly on wave dynamics at the laboratory scale using idealized fringing reef profiles with relatively smooth surfaces. To better understand the cross-shore wave dynamics associated with coastal wave run-up in field studies of fringing reefs, a numerical study based on the one-dimensional horizontal (1DH) weakly dispersive, highly nonlinear Boussinesq equations is...

  • Demirdjian R., Doyle J.D, Reynolds C.A, Norris J.R, Michaelis A.C, Ralph FM.  2020.  A case study of the physical processes associated with the atmospheric river initial-condition sensitivity from an adjoint model. 77:691-709.
    Abstract Summary:

    Analysis of a strong landfalling atmospheric river is presented that compares the evolution of a control simulation with that of an adjoint-derived perturbed simulation using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System. The initial-condition sensitivities are optimized for all state variables to maximize the accumulated precipitation within the majority of California. The water vapor transport is found to be substantially...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Background: Cash transfer programs have grown increasingly popular and are now used as interventions to target a wide array of health outcomes across many diverse settings. However, cash transfer experiments have yielded mixed results, highlighting gaps in our understanding of how these programs work. In particular, we do not yet know whether cash transfers are more effective for certain health outcomes compared to others, or are more...

  • Polonik P., Knote C., Zinner T., Ewald F., Kolling T., Mayer B., Andreae M.O, Jurkat-Witschas T., Klimach T., Mahnke C. et al..  2020.  The challenge of simulating the sensitivity of the Amazonian cloud microstructure to cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations. 20:1591-1605.
    Abstract Summary:

    The realistic representation of aerosol-cloud interactions is of primary importance for accurate climate model projections. The investigation of these interactions in strongly contrasting clean and polluted atmospheric conditions in the Amazon region has been one of the motivations for several field campaigns, including the airborne "Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems-Cloud...

  • Morato T., Gonzalez-Irusta J.M, Dominguez-Carrio C., Wei C.L, Davies A., Sweetman A.K, Taranto G.H, Beazley L., Garcia-Alegre A., Grehan A. et al..  2020.  Climate-induced changes in the suitable habitat of cold-water corals and commercially important deep-sea fishes in the North Atlantic.
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep sea plays a critical role in global climate regulation through uptake and storage of heat and carbon dioxide. However, this regulating service causes warming, acidification and deoxygenation of deep waters, leading to decreased food availability at the seafloor. These changes and their projections are likely to affect productivity, biodiversity and distributions of deep-sea fauna, thereby compromising key ecosystem services....

  • Ponnudurai R., Heiden S.E, Sayavedra L., Hinzke T., Kleiner M., Hentschker C., Felbeck H., Sievert S.M, Schluter R., Becher D. et al..  2020.  Comparative proteomics of related symbiotic mussel species reveals high variability of host-symbiont interactions. 14:649-656.
    Abstract Summary:

    Deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their chemoautotrophic symbionts are well-studied representatives of mutualistic host-microbe associations. However, how host-symbiont interactions vary on the molecular level between related host and symbiont species remains unclear. Therefore, we compared the host and symbiont metaproteomes of Pacific B. thermophilus, hosting a thiotrophic symbiont, and Atlantic B. azoricus, containing two symbionts, a...

  • Mei F., Wang J., Comstock J.M, Weigel R., Kramer M., Mahnke C., Shilling JE, Schneider J., Schulz C., Long C.N et al..  2020.  Comparison of aircraft measurements during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA. 13:661-684.
    Abstract Summary:

    The indirect effect of atmospheric aerosol particles on the Earth's radiation balance remains one of the most uncertain components affecting climate change throughout the industrial period. The large uncertainty is partly due to the incomplete understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions. One objective of the GoAmazon2014/5 and the ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems)...

  • Goldberg D.E, Melgar D, Sahakian V.J, Thomas A.M, Xu X., Crowell BW, Geng J..  2020.  Complex rupture of an immature fault zone: A simultaneous kinematic model of the 2019 Ridgecrest, CA earthquakes. 47
    Abstract Summary:

    The 4 July 2019 M(w)6.4 and subsequent 6 July 2019 M(w)7.1 Ridgecrest sequence earthquakes (CA, USA) ruptured orthogonal fault planes in a low slip rate (1 mm/year) dextral fault zone in the area linking the Eastern California Shear Zone and Walker Lane. This region accommodates nearly one fourth of plate boundary motion and has been proposed to be an incipient transform fault system that could eventually become the main tectonic boundary,...

  • Kahru M, Elmgren R., Kaiser J., Wasmund N., Savchuk O..  2020.  Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea: Correlations with environmental factors. 92
    Abstract Summary:

    Massive cyanobacteria blooms occur almost every summer in the Baltic Sea but the capability to quantitatively predict their extent and intensity is poorly developed. Here we analyse statistical relationships between multi-decadal satellite-derived time series of the frequency of cyanobacteria surface accumulations (FCA) in the central Baltic Sea Proper and a suite of environmental variables. Over the decadal scale (similar to 5-20 years) FCA...

  • Hu S.J, Sprintall J, Guan C., McPhaden MJ, Wang F., Hu D.X, Cai W.J.  2020.  Deep-reaching acceleration of global mean ocean circulation over the past two decades. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean circulation redistributes Earth's energy and water masses and influences global climate. Under historical greenhouse warming, regional ocean currents show diverse tendencies, but whether there is an emerging trend of the global mean ocean circulation system is not yet clear. Here, we show a statistically significant increasing trend in the globally integrated oceanic kinetic energy since the early 1990s, indicating a substantial...

  • Su W.Y, Minnis P, Liang L.S, Duda D.P, Khlopenkov K.V, Thieman M.M, Yu Y.N, Smith A., Lorentz S.R, Feldman D. et al..  2020.  Determining the daytime Earth radiative flux from National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) measurements. 13:429-443.
    Abstract Summary:

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provides continuous full-disk global broadband irradiance measurements over most of the sunlit side of the Earth. The three active cavity radiometers measure the total radiant energy from the sunlit side of the Earth in shortwave (SW; 0.2-4 mu m), total (0.4-100 mu m), and near-infrared (NIR; 0.7-4 mu m) channels...

  • Danovaro R., Fanelli E., Aguzzi J., Billett D., Carugati L., Corinaldesi C., Dell'Anno A., Gjerde K., Jamieson A.J, Kark S. et al..  2020.  Ecological variables for developing a global deep-ocean monitoring and conservation strategy. 4:181-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Expert elicitation methods identify a set of essential ecological variables that may be used to guide effective conservation and management of the deep sea. The deep sea (>200 m depth) encompasses >95% of the world's ocean volume and represents the largest and least explored biome on Earth (<0.0001% of ocean surface), yet is increasingly under threat from multiple direct and indirect anthropogenic pressures. Our ability to preserve...

  • Pirro A., Fernando H.JS, Wijesekera H.W, Jensen T.G, Centurioni LR, Jinadasa S.UP.  2020.  Eddies and currents in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoons. 172
    Abstract Summary:

    The Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and prominent eddies surrounding it, in particular, an anticyclonic eddy (AE) to the southeast and a cyclonic eddy (Sri Lanka Dome, SLD) to the east of Sri Lanka, were investigated using field observations, numerical simulations, satellite imagery, laboratory experiments and theoretical studies. The field campaigns were conducted in 2015 and 2018, respectively, in conjunction with...

  • Parish G.R, Rowbotham I., Mendoza N.E, Norton A.G, Klinger D.H, Dale J.D, Hopkins K.D, Garcia-Ortega A., Block B.A, Farwell C. et al..  2020.  Energetic savings when switching from a whole-fish type diet to a commercial pelleted diet in California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis). 516
    Abstract Summary:

    Feed is one of the largest costs in most aquaculture operations, and as such, aquaculturists are continually striving to improve on ingredient sourcing and formulations to increase growth and performance while reducing costs. Analysis of the energy expended in digestion of different feeds can be a valuable early indicator of the suitability of a new ingredient or formulation. We use respirometry, an activity level analysis, and proximate...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Field-based cultivation of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma seaweeds is widespread across the tropics and is largely done to extract the polysaccharide carrageenan, which is used in commercial applications. Although such seaweed farming has been cited as a sustainable alternative livelihood to destructive fishing, there has not been a comprehensive review of its environmental impacts to assess its potential conservation benefit. We reviewed the peer-...

  • Gopalakrishnan G, Subramanian AC, Miller AJ, Seo H, Sengupta D..  2020.  Estimation and prediction of the upper ocean circulation in the Bay of Bengal. 172
    Abstract Summary:

    The upper ocean stratification and circulation in the Bay of Bengal (BOB) plays a key role in the northward propagating monsoon intraseasonal oscillation during the months of June-August. This region is highly influenced by strong, seasonal atmospheric forcing and the oceanic circulation is characterized by dominant mesoscale variability and strong horizontal gradients in salinity and temperature during the monsoon period. Given the role of...

  • Jaeger G.S, Lucas A.J, Mahadevan A..  2020.  Formation of interleaving layers in the Bay of Bengal. 172
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations of the upper 200 m of the strongly stratified Bay of Bengal reveal a host of interleaving layers of watermass properties. The features appear as isopycnal spice anomalies and form multiple, parallel, similar to 10 m thin layers, that are coherent over horizontal scales of 30-80 km. They are coincident with anomalies in density stratification and in some cases, with the vertical shear of horizontal velocity, but are not aligned...

  • Zhang Y.X, Soerensen A.L, Schartup A.T, Sunderland E.M.  2020.  A global model for methylmercury formation and uptake at the base of marine food webs. 34
    Abstract Summary:

    Monomethylmercury (CH3Hg) is the only form of mercury (Hg) known to biomagnify in food webs. Here we investigate factors driving methylated mercury [MeHg = CH3Hg + (CH3)(2)Hg)] production and degradation across the global ocean and uptake and trophic transfer at the base of marine food webs. We develop a new global 3-D simulation of MeHg in seawater and phyto/zooplankton within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation...

  • Fiore M.F, de Lima S.T, Carmichael W.W, McKinnie S.MK, Chekan J.R, Moore BS.  2020.  Guanitoxin, re-naming a cyanobacterial organophosphate toxin. 92
    Abstract Summary:

    Anatoxin-a(S) is the most potent natural neurotoxin produced by fresh water cyanobacteria. It is also the least understood and monitored. Although this potent cholinesterase inhibitor was first reported in the 1970s and connected with animal poisonings, the lack of chemical standards and identified biosynthetic genes together with limited diagnostics and acute reactivity of this naturally-occurring organophosphate have limited our...