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Recent Publications

  • Spicer G.LC, Eid A., Wangpraseurt D., Swain T.D, Winkelmann J.A, Yi J., Kuhl M., Marcelino L.A, Backman V..  2019.  Measuring light scattering and absorption in corals with Inverse Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (ISOCT): a new tool for non-invasive monitoring. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    The success of reef-building corals for >200 million years has been dependent on the mutualistic interaction between the coral host and its photosynthetic endosymbiont dinoflagellates (family Symbiodiniaceae) that supply the coral host with nutrients and energy for growth and calcification. While multiple light scattering in coral tissue and skeleton significantly enhance the light microenvironment for Symbiodiniaceae, the mechanisms of...

  • Gracia A., Levin L.A, Zea S..  2019.  Meio-epifaunal wood colonization in the vicinity of methane seeps.
    Abstract Summary:

    In deep-sea environments, plant remains of several origins are found, including branches, twigs, leaves, and wood pieces, among others. As most of the deep-sea bottoms are oligotrophic and nutrient-limited, plant remains provide an oasis of localized organic enrichment and a substrate for colonization. Sunken wood was suggested to play an important evolutionary role in the diversification of chemosynthetic ecosystems, possibly representing...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The mesopelagic (200-1000 m) separates the productive upper ocean from the deep ocean, yet little is known of its long-term dynamics despite recent research that suggests fishes of this zone likely dominate global fish biomass and contribute to the downward flux of carbon. Here we show that mesopelagic fishes dominate the otolith (ear bone) record in anoxic sediment layers of the Santa Barbara Basin over the past two millennia. Among these...

  • Eiben C.B, de Rond T., Bloszies C., Gin J., Chiniquy J., Baidoo E.EK, Petzold C.J, Hillson N.J, Fiehn O., Keasling J.D.  2019.  Mevalonate pathway promiscuity enables noncanonical terpene production. 8:2238-2247.
    Abstract Summary:

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) make the six-carbon compounds homoisopentenyl pyrophosphate (HIPP) and homodimethylallyl pyrophosphate (HDMAPP) that are incorporated into 16, 17, and 18 carbon farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) analogues. In this work we heterologously expressed the lepidopteran modified mevalonate pathway, a propionyl-CoA ligase, and terpene cyclases in E. coli to produce several novel terpenes containing 16 carbons. Changing...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) provided a highly detailed set of remote-sensing and surface observations to study Antarctic clouds and surface energy balance, which have received much less attention than for the Arctic due to greater logistical challenges. Limited prior Antarctic cloud observations have slowed the progress of numerical weather prediction in this region. The AWARE...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over the past half-century, but the role of specific anthropogenic drivers is unresolved due to the lack of ecosystem-level data predating human disturbance. To better understand the extent and causes of long-term Caribbean reef declines, we produced a continuous 3000-yr record of the ecosystem state of three reefs in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean Panama. From fossils and...

  • Healy T.M, Brennan R.S, Whitehead A., Schulte P.M.  2019.  Mitochondria, sex and variation in routine metabolic rate.
    Abstract Summary:

    Variation in the metabolic costs associated with organismal maintenance may play a key role in determining fitness, and thus these differences among individuals are likely to be subject to natural selection. Although the evolvability of maintenance metabolism depends on its underlying genetic architecture, relatively little is known about the nature of genetic variation that underlies this trait. To address this, we measured variation in...

  • Alberty M., Sprintall J, MacKinnon J., Germineaud C., Cravatte S., Ganachaud A..  2019.  Moored observations of transport in the Solomon Sea.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Solomon Sea is a marginal sea in the western Pacific warm pool that contains the South Pacific low latitude western boundary currents. These low latitude western boundary currents chiefly exit the Solomon Sea through three channels (Vitiaz Strait, St. George's Channel, and Solomon Strait) and serve as the primary source water for the Equatorial Undercurrent. Simulations have shown that transport partitioning between the straits determines...

  • Adams K., MacKinnon J., Lucas A.J, Nash J., Shroyer E., Farrar J.T.  2019.  Multi-platform observations of small-scale lateral mixed layer variability in the northern Bay of Bengal. 168
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations of the ocean surface boundary layer in the Northern Bay of Bengal were collected simultaneously from multiple platforms during the late summer of 2015. A spatial survey, consisting of a similar to 4 km triangle, was repeated for 2 days by R/V Roger Revelle. The shipboard observations included profiles of temperature, salinity, velocity, and microstructure, and a towed bow-chain. Concurrently, an autonomous surface vessel and a...

  • Ding Y., Murphy K.M, Poretsky E., Mafu S., Yang B, Char S.N, Christensen S.A, Saldivar E., Wu M.X, Wang Q. et al..  2019.  Multiple genes recruited from hormone pathways partition maize diterpenoid defences. 5:1043-1056.
    Abstract Summary:

    Duplication and divergence of primary pathway genes underlie the evolution of plant specialized metabolism; however, mechanisms partitioning parallel hormone and defence pathways are often speculative. For example, the primary pathway intermediate ent-kaurene is essential for gibberellin biosynthesis and is also a proposed precursor for maize antibiotics. By integrating transcriptional coregulation patterns, genome-wide association studies,...

  • Daniel P, J. MJeremiah, Emily K, Mingxun W, E. WMargot, E. AEric, I. ALihini, C. DPieter.  2019.  Non-targeted metabolomics enables the prioritization and tracking of anthropogenic pollutants in coastal seawater.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anthropogenic pollutants inundate marine ecosystems as human population growth and urbanization rapidly increase along the coast. Our analytical methods are typically aimed at measuring and monitoring a restricted number of compounds. To prioritize coastal anthropogenic impacts in a comprehensive fashion, we applied large-scale non-targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We integrated an advanced data analysis pipeline that...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study uses observations and atmospheric reanalysis products in order to understand the impacts of smoke aerosols advected from the Southern Hemisphere on the dynamics of the West African monsoon. Seasonal biomass burning and resulting aerosol emissions have been well documented to affect regional weather patterns, especially low-level convection. Out of all monsoon months, precipitation shows the most variability over land during August...

  • Sathyendranath S., Brewin R.JW, Brockmann C., Brotas V., Calton B., Chuprin A., Cipollini P., Couto A.B, Dingle J., Doerffer R. et al..  2019.  An ocean-colour time series for use in climate studies: The experience of the Ocean-Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). 19
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean colour is recognised as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS); and spectrally-resolved water-leaving radiances (or remote-sensing reflectances) in the visible domain, and chlorophyll-a concentration are identified as required ECV products. Time series of the products at the global scale and at high spatial resolution, derived from ocean-colour data, are key to studying the dynamics of...

  • Testor P, de Young B., Rudnick D.L, Glenn S., Hayes D., Lee CM, Pattiaratchi C., Hill K., Heslop E., Turpin V. et al..  2019.  OceanGliders: A component of the integrated GOOS. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The OceanGliders program started in 2016 to support active coordination and enhancement of global glider activity. OceanGliders contributes to the international efforts of the Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS) for Climate, Ocean Health, and Operational Services. It brings together marine scientists and engineers operating gliders around the world: (1) to observe the long-term physical, biogeochemical, and biological ocean processes and...

  • Trueblood J.V, Wang X.F, Or V.W, Alves M.R, Santander M.V, Prather KA, Grassian VH.  2019.  The old and the new: Aging of sea spray aerosol and formation of secondary marine aerosol through OH oxidation reactions. 3:2307-2314.
    Abstract Summary:

    In this study, we have investigated the effect of hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation reactions on the formation and chemical composition of marine-derived aerosols. Marine aerosols can be classified into two categories: primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) produced upon the breaking of waves, and secondary marine aerosol (SMA) produced upon the oxidation of gas phase species. Here we simultaneously investigated the impact of heterogeneous OH...

  • Sastri A.R, Christian J.R, Achterberg E.P, Atamanchuk D., Buck J.JH, Bresnahan P., Duke P.J, Evans W., Gonski S.F, Johnson B. et al..  2019.  Perspectives on in situ sensors for ocean acidification research. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    As ocean acidification (OA) sensor technology develops and improves, in situ deployment of such sensors is becoming more widespread. However, the scientific value of these data depends on the development and application of best practices for calibration, validation, and quality assurance as well as on further development and optimization of the measurement technologies themselves. Here, we summarize the results of a 2-day workshop on OA...

  • Abstract Summary:

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in different applications, and potential exposure to these NPs raises concerns about their impact on human health. In contact with biological fluids, proteins adsorb onto NPs to create a protein corona. Protein adsorption is highly dependent on the affinity between exterior amino acid residues and the NP surface. Thus, studying amino acids adsorption onto NPs can provide insight into protein corona...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The new phthalideisoquinoline hemiacetal alkaloids (2-7) and the known analogues (1 and 8) were isolated from the bulbs of Corydalis decumbens. The new compounds were characterized by analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data, chemical degradation syntheses, X-ray crystallography, and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD data. All the isolates were screened in vitro for inhibitory activity of spontaneous calcium oscillations in...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Accurate representation of cloud microphysical processes in numerical weather and climate models has proven challenging, in part because of the highly specialized instrumentation required for diagnosing errors in simulated distributions of hydrometeors. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) polarimetric radio occultation (PRO) is a promising new technique that is sensitive to hydrometeors and has the potential to help address these...

  • Bibo-Verdugo B., Wang S.C, Almaliti J., Ta A.P, Jiang Z.Z, Wong D.A, Lietz C.B, Suzuki B.M, El-Saldary N., Hook V. et al..  2019.  The proteasome as a drug target in the metazoan pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni. 5:1802-1812.
    Abstract Summary:

    Proteases are fundamental to successful parasitism, including that of the schistosome flatworm parasite, which causes the disease schistosomiasis in 200 million people worldwide. The proteasome is receiving attention as a potential drug target for treatment of a variety of infectious parasitic diseases, but it has been understudied in the schistosome. Adult Schistosoma mansoni were incubated with 1 mu M concentrations of the proteasome...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Tropical Cyclone Oma hit the SE Queensland coast of Australia in February 2019. Significant wave heights exceeding 10 m were further amplified by a king tide. Satellite remote sensing of pre- and post-Oma shoreline positions was performed because storms hindered the ability to acquire field-based data. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PlanetScope imagery enabled mapping of the high water line (HWL), which was used as a shoreline...

  • Bushinsky S.M, Landschutzer P, Rodenbeck C, Gray A.R, Baker D., Mazloff MR, Resplandy L., Johnson K.S, Sarmiento J.L.  2019.  Reassessing Southern Ocean air-sea CO2 flux estimates with the addition of biogeochemical float observations.
    Abstract Summary:

    New estimates of pCO(2) from profiling floats deployed by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) project have demonstrated the importance of wintertime outgassing south of the Polar Front, challenging the accepted magnitude of Southern Ocean carbon uptake (Gray et al., 2018, ). Here, we put 3.5 years of SOCCOM observations into broader context with the global surface carbon dioxide database (Surface Ocean CO2...

  • Coale TH, Moosburner M, Horák A, Oborník M, Barbeau KA, Allen AE.  2019.  Reduction-dependent siderophore assimilation in a model pennate diatom.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms can access inorganic iron with remarkable efficiency, but this process is contingent on carbonate ion concentration. As ocean acidification reduces carbonate concentration, inorganic iron uptake may be discouraged in favor of carbonate-independent uptake. We report details of an iron assimilation process that needs no carbonate but requires exogenous compounds produced by cooccurring organisms. We show this process to be critical for...

  • Huang J.P, Chen W., Wen Z.P, Zhang GJ, Li Z.X, Zuo Z.Y, Zhao Q.Y.  2019.  Review of Chinese atmospheric science research over the past 70 years: Climate and climate change. 62:1514-1550.
    Abstract Summary:

    Climate and climate change have always been a research focus of atmospheric sciences. This paper summaries research efforts, achievements and international contributions of the Chinese scientific community on climate and climate change over the past 70 years. The review is based on papers published officially in national or international scientific journals, and is organized to cover six aspects: (1) general climate studies; (2) impact of the...

  • Ruddick K.G, Voss K., Boss E., Castagna A., Frouin R., Gilerson A., Hieronymi M., Johnson B.C, Kuusk J., Lee Z. et al..  2019.  A review of protocols for fiducial reference measurements of water-leaving radiance for validation of satellite remote-sensing data over water. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper reviews the state of the art of protocols for measurement of water-leaving radiance in the context of fiducial reference measurements (FRM) of water reflectance for satellite validation. Measurement of water reflectance requires the measurement of water-leaving radiance and downwelling irradiance just above water. For the former there are four generic families of method, based on: (1) underwater radiometry at fixed depths; or (2)...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This paper focuses on the biology and ecological impacts of Ichthyodinium chabelardi (phylum Dinophyta, class Syndiniophyceae, order Syndiniales), a virulent endobiotic parasite of yolk sacs and young larvae of many species of marine fin fish. Its infections have been observed in warm and temperate open oceanic environments and crowded marine fish tanks. The prevalence of I. chabelardi and the range of its host fishes is not well studied, and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The evolution of turbulence in a shallow submesoscale front is investigated using high-resolution large-eddy simulations (LES). The model front has uniquely large cross-front temperature and salinity differences motivated by recent observations in the Bay of Bengal. The temperature and salinity differences are increased in a parametric study to examine their effects on the evolution of turbulence. Shear turbulence induced by the initially...

  • Li Y.M, Shrestha M., Luo M., Sit I., Song M.S, Grassian VH, Xiong W..  2019.  Salting up of proteins at the air/water interface. 35:13815-13820.
    Abstract Summary:

    Vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy and surface pressure measurements are used to investigate the adsorption of a globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), at the air/water interface with and without the presence of salts. We find at low (2 to 5 ppm) protein concentrations, which is relevant to environmental conditions, both VSFG and surface pressure measurements of BSA behave drastically different from at higher...

  • Duggan BM, Cullum R., Fenical W, Amador L.A, Rodriguez A.D, La Clair J.J.  2019.  Searching for small molecules with an atomic sort.
    Abstract Summary:

    The discovery of biologically active small molecules requires sifting through large amounts of data to identify unique or unusual arrangements of atoms. Here, we develop, test and evaluate an atom-based sort to identify novel features of secondary metabolites and demonstrate its use to evaluate novelty in marine microbial and sponge extracts. This study outlines an important ongoing advance towards the translation of autonomous systems to...

  • Goldberg D.E, Melgar D, Bock Y.  2019.  Seismogeodetic p-wave amplitude: No evidence for strong determinism. 46:11118-11126.
    Abstract Summary:

    Whether the final properties of large earthquakes can be inferred from initial observations of rupture (deterministic rupture) is valuable for understanding earthquake source processes and is critical for operational earthquake and tsunami early warning. Initial (P-wave) characteristics of small to moderate earthquakes scale with magnitude, yet observations of large to great earthquakes saturate, resulting in magnitude underestimation....

  • Sun R., Subramanian AC, Miller AJ, Mazloff MR, Hoteit I., Cornuelle BD.  2019.  SKRIPS v1.0: a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling framework (MITgcm-WRF) using ESMF/NUOPC, description and preliminary results for the Red Sea. 12:4221-4244.
    Abstract Summary:

    A new regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model is developed and its implementation is presented in this paper. The coupled model is based on two open-source community model components: the MITgcm ocean model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmosphere model. The coupling between these components is performed using ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework) and implemented according to National United Operational Prediction Capability...

  • Tymofyeyeva E., Fialko Y, Jiang J.L, Xu X.H, Sandwell D., Bilham R., Rockwell T.K, Blanton C., Burkett F., Gontz A. et al..  2019.  Slow slip event on the southern San Andreas Fault triggered by the 2017 M(w)8.2 Chiapas (Mexico) earthquake.
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations of shallow fault creep reveal increasingly complex time-dependent slip histories that include quasi-steady creep and triggered as well as spontaneous accelerated slip events. Here we report a recent slow slip event on the southern San Andreas fault triggered by the 2017 M(w)8.2 Chiapas (Mexico) earthquake that occurred 3,000 km away. Geodetic and geologic observations indicate that surface slip on the order of 10 mm occurred on a...

  • Luo M, Gieskes J, Chen L, Scholten J, Pan B, Lin G, Chen D.  2019.  Sources, degradation, and transport of organic matter in the New Britain Shelf-Trench continuum, Papua New Guinea. 124:1680-1695.
    Abstract Summary:

    Abstract Hadal trenches are considered as depocenters for organic matter and hotspots for microbial diagenetic activity. Here, we explore the sources, degradation, and transport of organic matter in the shelf-trench continuum using seven short sediment cores collected along two transects with water depths ranging between 1,553 and 8,901 m in the New Britain Trench area, Papua New Guinea. Carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) and radiocarbon...

  • Winski D.A, Fudge T.J, Ferris D.G, Osterberg E.C, Fegyveresi J.M, Cole-Dai J., Thundercloud Z., Cox T.S, Kreutz K.J, Ortman N. et al..  2019.  The SP19 chronology for the South Pole Ice Core - Part 1: volcanic matching and annual layer counting. 15:1793-1808.
    Abstract Summary:

    The South Pole Ice Core (SPICEcore) was drilled in 2014-2016 to provide a detailed multi-proxy archive of paleoclimate conditions in East Antarctica during the Holocene and late Pleistocene. Interpretation of these records requires an accurate depth-age relationship. Here, we present the SPICEcore (SP19) timescale for the age of the ice of SPICEcore. SP19 is synchronized to the WD2014 chronology from theWest Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We investigate coherences of seismic data recorded during three years (2015-2017) at the Pinon Flats Observatory (PY) array and a collocated 148 m deep borehole station B084, along with oceanic data from a buoy southwest of the PY array. Seismic and barometric recordings at PY stations are analyzed with a multitaper spectral technique. The coherence of signals from seismic sources is >0.6 at 0.05-8 Hz between closely spaced (<65 m)...

  • Fan W.Y, McGuire J.J, de Groot-Hedlin C.D, Hedlin MAH, Coats S., Fiedler J.W.  2019.  Stormquakes.
    Abstract Summary:

    Seismic signals from ocean-solid Earth interactions are ubiquitously recorded on our planet. However, these wavefields are typically incoherent in the time domain limiting their utilization for understanding ocean dynamics or solid Earth properties. In contrast, we find that during large storms such as hurricanes and Nor'easters the interaction of long-period ocean waves with shallow seafloor features located near the edge of continental...

  • Cerovecki I, Hendershott M.C, Yulaeva E..  2019.  Strong North Pacific subtropical mode water volume and density decrease in year 1999.
    Abstract Summary:

    A strong decrease of volume and density of North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW) in 1999 was analyzed in a regional high-resolution (0.1 degrees) numerical ocean circulation model simulation. Both shoaling of the bottom and deepening of the top of the NPSTMW layer contributed equally to volume decrease. They were locally governed by different physical processes, but both seem to be associated with basin-wide changes in wind. A...

  • Tietze D., Kaufmann D., Tietze A.A, Vo A., Reher R., Konig G., Hausch F..  2019.  Structural and dynamical basis of G protein inhibition by YM-254890 and FR900359: An inhibitor in action. 59:4361-4373.
    Abstract Summary:

    Specific inhibition of G proteins holds a great pharmacological promise to, e.g., target oncogenic G(q/11) proteins and can be achieved by the two natural products FR900359 (FR) and YM-254890 (YM). Unfortunately, recent rational-design-based approaches to address G proteins other than G(q/11/14) subtypes were not successful mainly due to the conformational complexity of these new modalities-like compounds. Here, we report the water-derived...

  • Bortolus A., Adam P., Adams J.B, Ainouche M.L, Ayres D., Bertness M.D, Bouma T.J, Bruno J.F, Cacador I., Carlton J.T et al..  2019.  Supporting Spartina: Interdisciplinary perspective shows Spartina as a distinct solid genus.
    Abstract Summary:

    In 2014, a DNA-based phylogenetic study confirming the paraphyly of the grass subtribe Sporobolinae proposed the creation of a large monophyletic genus Sporobolus, including (among others) species previously included in the genera Spartina, Calamovilfa, and Sporobolus. Spartina species have contributed substantially (and continue contributing) to our knowledge in multiple disciplines, including ecology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology...

  • Garcia E., Rice C.A, Eernisse D.J, Forsgren K.L, Quimbayo J.P, Rouse GW.  2019.  Systematic relationships of sympatric pipefishes (Syngnathus spp.): A mismatch between morphological and molecular variation.
    Abstract Summary:

    Analyses of mitochondrial DNA and morphological variation were performed on specimens of all five currently recognised Syngnathus pipefish species from the eastern Pacific Ocean with type localities currently considered to lie within the Californian marine biogeographic province: kelp pipefish Syngnathus californiensis, bay pipefish S. leptorhynchus, barred pipefish S. auliscus, barcheek pipefish S. exilis and chocolate pipefish S. euchrous....

  • Kilpatrick T., Xie SP, Tokinaga H., Long D., Hutchings N..  2019.  Systematic scatterometer wind errors near coastal mountains.
    Abstract Summary:

    Satellite scatterometers provide the only regular observations of surface wind vectors over vast swaths of the world oceans, including coastal regions, which are of great scientific and societal interest but still present challenges for remote sensing. Here we demonstrate systematic scatterometer wind errors near Hawaii's Big Island: Two counter-rotating lee vortices, which are clear in the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data...

  • Nelson A.D, Arbic B.K, Zaron E.D, Savage A.C, Richman J.G, Buijsman M.C, Shriver J.F.  2019.  Toward realistic nonstationarity of semidiurnal baroclinic tides in a hydrodynamic model.
    Abstract Summary:

    Semidiurnal baroclinic tide sea surface height (SSH) variance and semidiurnal nonstationary variance fraction (SNVF) are compared between a hydrodynamic model and altimetry for the low- to middle-latitude global ocean. Tidal frequencies are aliased by similar to 10-day altimeter sampling, which makes it impossible to unambiguously identify nonstationary tidal signals from the observations. In order to better understand altimeter sampling...

  • Lorrain A., Pethybridge H., Cassar N., Receveur A., Allain V., Bodin N., Bopp L., Choy C.A, Duffy L., Fry B. et al..  2019.  Trends in tuna carbon isotopes suggest global changes in pelagic phytoplankton communities.
    Abstract Summary:

    Considerable uncertainty remains over how increasing atmospheric CO2 and anthropogenic climate changes are affecting open-ocean marine ecosystems from phytoplankton to top predators. Biological time series data are thus urgently needed for the world's oceans. Here, we use the carbon stable isotope composition of tuna to provide a first insight into the existence of global trends in complex ecosystem dynamics and changes in the oceanic carbon...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Reef-building corals are mixotrophic organisms that can obtain nutrition from endosymbiotic microalgae (autotrophy) and particle capture (heterotrophy). Heterotrophic nutrition is highly beneficial to many corals, particularly in times of stress. Yet, the extent to which different coral species rely on heterotrophic nutrition remains largely unknown because it is challenging to quantify. We developed a quantitative approach to investigate...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A new prototype coupled ocean-atmosphere Ensemble Kalman Filter reanalysis product, the Community Earth System Model using the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (CESM-DART), is studied by comparing its tropical climate variability to other reanalysis products, available observations, and a free-running version of the model. The results reveal that CESM-DART produces fields that are comparable in overall performance with those of four other...

  • Yan Y.Z, Bender M.L, Brook E.J, Clifford H.M, Kemeny P.C, Kurbatov A.V, Mackay S., Mayewski P.A, Ng J., Severinghaus JP et al..  2019.  Two-million-year-old snapshots of atmospheric gases from Antarctic ice. 574:663-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Over the past eight hundred thousand years, glacial-interglacial cycles oscillated with a period of one hundred thousand years ('100k world'1). Ice core and ocean sediment data have shown that atmospheric carbon dioxide, Antarctic temperature, deep ocean temperature, and global ice volume correlated strongly with each other in the 100k world(2-6). Between about 2.8 and 1.2 million years ago, glacial cycles were smaller in magnitude and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    One commonly used method to measure and detect centimeter-scale changes on land is structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry, wherein sets of digital images are used to generate three-dimensional spatial models. Subcentimeter accuracy useful for geodetic studies is achievable when these surveys are conducted on land or from the air. This method has made its way into marine environments by way of scuba, remotely operated vehicle, and...

  • Guedes J.D, Hanson S., Higham C., Higham T., Lertcharnrit T..  2019.  The wet and the dry, the wild and the cultivated: subsistence and risk management in ancient Central Thailand.
    Abstract Summary:

    Increasing the productivity and yield of rice in Central Thailand has been a key focus of international and local government policy. Efforts have centered around producing a second winter season of irrigated rice. However, a series of droughts in the region have led to widespread crop failure. We carry out a re-evaluation of weather station and environmental data and combine this with new information from a key archeological site in Central...

  • Piecuch C.G, Thompson P.R, Ponte R.M, Merrifield M.A, Hamlington B.D.  2019.  What caused recent shifts in tropical Pacific decadal sea-level trends?
    Abstract Summary:

    Satellite altimetry reveals substantial decadal variability in sea level zeta across the tropical Pacific during 1993-2015. An ocean state estimate that faithfully reproduces the observations is used to elucidate the origin of these low-frequency tropical Pacific zeta variations. Analysis of the hydrostatic equation reveals that recent decadal zeta changes in the tropical Pacific are mainly thermosteric in nature, related to changes in upper-...

  • Gaskell D.E, Ohman MD, Hull P.M.  2019.  Zooglider-based measurements of planktonic foraminifera in the California Current system. 49:390-404.
    Abstract Summary:

    Spines and rhizopodia play an important role in the feeding behavior, symbiont ecology, shell geochemistry, and density and drag of planktonic foraminifera. However, there are few empirical data on planktonic foraminifera in situ, and these delicate structures are disturbed on capture. Here, we report spine and rhizopod measurements from underwater images obtained in the California Current System near La Jolla, California by Zooglider, a new...

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