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Recent Publications

  • Schonau M.C, Wijesekera H.W, Teague W.J, Colin P.L, Gopalakrishnan G, Rudnick D.L, Cornuelle BD, Hallock Z.R, Wang D.W.  2019.  The end of an El Niño: A view from Palau. 32:32-45.
    Abstract Summary:

    The ocean's response to the termination of the major 2015/2016 El Nino event was captured from moorings and gliders deployed near Palau as part of the Office of Naval Research Departmental Research Initiative Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT). As the El Nino transitioned to neutral conditions in spring 2016, pulses of positive (warm) sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs) moved westward, deepening the thermocline and reaching Palau by...

  • Johnston T.MS, MacKinnon JA, Colin P.L, Haley P.J, Lermusiaux P.FJ, Lucas A.J, Merrifield M.A, Merrifield S.T, Mirabito C., Nash J.D et al..  2019.  Energy and momentum lost to wake eddies and lee waves generated by the north equatorial current and tidal flows at Peleliu, Palau. 32:110-125.
    Abstract Summary:

    The North Equatorial Current (NEC) transports water westward around numerous islands and over submarine ridges in the western Pacific. As the currents flow over and around this topography, the central question is: how are momentum and energy in the incident flow transferred to finer scales? At the south point of Peleliu Island, Palau, a combination of strong NEC currents and tides flow over a steep, submarine ridge. Energy cascades suddenly...

  • Zedler S.E, Powell B.S, Qiu B., Rudnick D.L.  2019.  Energy transfer in the western Tropical Pacific. 32:136-145.
    Abstract Summary:

    We aim to understand the surface kinetic energy cascade across a wide range of length scales in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and the influence of both climatic dynamics and topography using a high-resolution (2.5 km) model nested within a coarser (8 km) state-estimate model. The period of interest includes the development and realization of the 2014-2015 El Nino. The energy cascade in the WTP is similar to that of the extratropics, with...

  • Goldbogen J.A, Cade D.E, Calambokidis J, Czapanskiy M.F, Fahlbusch J., Friedlaender A.S, Gough W.T, Kahane-Rapport S.R, Savoca M.S, Ponganis K.V et al..  2019.  Extreme bradycardia and tachycardia in the world's largest animal. 116:25329-25332.
    Abstract Summary:

    The biology of the blue whale has long fascinated physiologists because of the animal's extreme size. Despite high energetic demands from a large body, low mass-specific metabolic rates are likely powered by low heart rates. Diving bradycardia should slow blood oxygen depletion and enhance dive time available for foraging at depth. However, blue whales exhibit a high-cost feeding mechanism, lunge feeding, whereby large volumes of prey-laden...

  • Girton J.B, Mickett J.B, Zhao Z.X, Alford MH, Voet G., Cusack J.M, Carter G.S, Pearson-Potts K.A, Pratt L.J, Tan S.W et al..  2019.  Flow-topography interactions in the Samoan Passage. 32:184-193.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mixing in the Samoan Passage has implications for the abyssal water properties of the entire North Pacific-nearly 20% of the global ocean's volume. Dense bottom water formed near Antarctica encounters the passage-a gap in a ridge extending from north of Samoa eastward across the Pacific at around 10 degrees S-and forms an energetic cascade much like a river flowing through a canyon. The 2011-2014 Samoan Passage Abyssal Mixing Experiment...

  • Abstract Summary:

    As part of a broad-scale study of the biogeography of rocky reefs in the Gulf of California, Mexico (GOC), we collected a continuous 1-yr temperature time series at similar to 5 m water depth at 16 sites spanning 5 degrees of latitude and similar to 700 km along the western boundary of the basin. Throughout the region, thermal conditions were most variable in summer with fluctuations concentrated at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica, lives in estuarine habitats from California (USA) in North America to Piura (Peru) in South America. Throughout this range, the snail serves as first intermediate host for a diverse guild of digenean trematodes. These parasites are used in teaching laboratories, and have been subject to a large amount of taxonomic, biological, evolutionary, and ecological research. Despite the abundance...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Sex can influence patterns of parasitism because males and females can differ in encounter with, and susceptibility to, parasites. We investigate an isopod parasite (Hemioniscus balani) that consumes ovarian fluid, blocking female function of its barnacle host, a simultaneous hermaphrodite. As a hermaphrodite, sex is fluid, and individuals may allocate energy differentially to male versus female reproduction. We predicted the relationship...

  • Morandini V., Dugger K.M, Ballard G., Elrod M., Schmidt A., Ruoppolo V., Lescroel A., Jongsomjit D., Massaro M., Pennycook J. et al..  2019.  Identification of a novel Adelie penguin circovirus at Cape Crozier (Ross Island, Antarctica). 11
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding the causes of disease in Antarctic wildlife is crucial, as many of these species are already threatened by environmental changes brought about by climate change. In recent years, Antarctic penguins have been showing signs of an unknown pathology: a feather disorder characterised by missing feathers, resulting in exposed skin. During the 2018-2019 austral summer breeding season at Cape Crozier colony on Ross Island, Antarctica,...

  • Luu I., Sharma A., Guaderrama M., Peru M., Nation J., Page N., Carvalho D., Magit A., Jiang W., Leuin S. et al..  2019.  Immune dysregulation in the tonsillar microenvironment of Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis (PFAPA) Syndrome.
    Abstract Summary:

    Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is an inflammatory disorder of childhood classically characterized by recurrent fevers, pharyngitis, stomatitis, cervical adenitis, and leukocytosis. While the mechanism is unclear, previous studies have shown that tonsillectomy can be a therapeutic option with improvement in quality of life in many patients with PFAPA, but the mechanisms behind surgical success...

  • Boghosian A.L, Pratt M.J, Becker M.K, Cordero S.I, Dhakal T., Kingslake J., Locke C.D, Tinto K.J, Bell R.E.  2019.  Inside the ice shelf: using augmented reality to visualise 3D lidar and radar data of Antarctica. 34:346-364.
    Abstract Summary:

    From 2015 to 2017, the ROSETTA-Ice project comprehensively mapped Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf using IcePod, a newly developed aerogeophysical platform. The campaign imaged the ice-shelf surface with lidar and its internal structure with ice-penetrating radar. The ROSETTA-Ice data was combined with pre-existing ice surface and bed topography digital elevation models to create the first augmented reality (AR) visualisation of the Antarctic Ice...

  • Merrifield S.T, Colin P.L, Cook T., Garcia-Moreno C., MacKinnon JA, Otero M, Schrnmek T.A, Siegeman M., Simmons H.L, Terrill E.J.  2019.  Island wakes observed from high-frequency current mapping radar. 32:92-101.
    Abstract Summary:

    The interaction of large-scale oceanic flows with remote island chains can lead to turbulent wakes, enhanced vorticity production, and significant increases in biological productivity. This study showcases the range of flow conditions captured by surface current mapping high-frequency (HF) radar systems deployed around the main island group of Palau in the western Pacific. The radar array captures strong tidal and inertial flows, both near-...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    The impacts of parasites on hosts and the role that parasites play in ecosystems must be underlain by the load of parasites in individual hosts. To help explain and predict parasite load across a broad range of species, quantitative theory has been developed based on fundamental relationships between organism size, temperature and metabolic rate. Here, we elaborate on an aspect of that 'scaling theory for parasitism', and test a previously...

  • Cao L., Gurevich A., Alexander K.L, Naman C.B, Leao T., Glukhov E., Luzzatto-Knaan T., Vargas F., Quinn R., Bouslimani A. et al..  2019.  MetaMiner: A scalable peptidogenomics approach for discovery of ribosomal peptide natural products with blind modifications from microbial communities. 9:600-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are an important class of natural products that contain antibiotics and a variety of other bioactive compounds. The existing methods for discovery of RiPPs by combining genome mining and computational mass spectrometry are limited to discovering specific classes of RiPPs from small datasets, and these methods fail to handle unknown post-translational modifications....

  • Klasek S., Torres M.E, Bartlett DH, Tyler M., Hong W.L, Colwell F..  2019.  Microbial communities from Arctic marine sediments respond slowly to methane addition during ex situ enrichments.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) consume methane in marine sediments, limiting its release to the water column, but their responses to changes in methane and sulfate supplies remain poorly constrained. To address how methane exposure may affect microbial communities and methane- and sulfur-cycling gene abundances in Arctic marine sediments, we collected sediments from offshore Svalbard that represent geochemical horizons where...

  • Myers M.R, Barnard P.L, Beighley E., Cayan DR, Dugan J.E, Feng D.M, Hubbard D.M, Iacobellis S.F, Melack J.M, Page H.M.  2019.  A multidisciplinary coastal vulnerability assessment for local government focused on ecosystems, Santa Barbara area, California. 182
    Abstract Summary:

    Incorporating coastal ecosystems in climate adaptation planning is needed to maintain the well-being of both natural and human systems. Our vulnerability study uses a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate climate change vulnerability of an urbanized coastal community that could serve as a model approach for communities worldwide, particularly in similar Mediterranean climates. We synthesize projected changes in climate, coastal erosion and...

  • Garcon V., Karstensen J, Palacz A., Telszewski M., Lara T.A, Breitburg D., Chavez F., Coelho P., Cornejo-D'Ottone M., Santos C. et al..  2019.  Multidisciplinary observing in the world ocean's oxygen minimum zone regions: From climate to fish - The VOICE Initiative. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The...

  • Huang L.M, Ding L.J, Li X.H, Wang N., Cui W., Wang X., Naman C.B, Lazaro J.EH, Van X.J, He S..  2019.  New dihydroisocoumarin root growth inhibitors from the sponge-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. NBUF87. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Six new dihydroisocoumarins, aspergimarins A-F (1-6), were discovered together with five known analogs (7-11) from a monoculture of the sponge-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. NBUF87. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through comprehensive spectroscopic methods, and absolute configurations were assigned after X-ray crystallography, use of the modified Mosher's method, and comparison of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data...

  • Colin P.L, Johnston T.MS, MacKinnon JA, Ou C.Y, Rudnick D.L, Terrill E.J, Lindfield S.J, Batchelor H..  2019.  Ngaraard Pinnacle, Palau: An Undersea “Island” in the Flow. 32:164-173.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper uses the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) experiment's unique data set to examine and document the biophysical environment of an unusual low-light reef habitat in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Located 1.6 km seaward of the eastern coast of Palau, Ngaraard Pinnacle (NP) rises from the deep ocean to 92 m depth, constituting an "island" where such a habitat exists. Low-light reef habitats have not been well studied...

  • Qiu B., Chen S.M, Powell B.S, Colin P.L, Rudnick D.L, Schonau M.C.  2019.  Nonlinear short-term upper ocean circulation variability in the tropical western Pacific. 32:22-31.
    Abstract Summary:

    Due to the presence of a well-defined permanent thermocline, low-frequency upper ocean circulation variability in the tropical western Pacific Ocean is effectively captured by the region's linear baroclinic Rossby wave dynamics. A careful examination of variations in the circulation surrounding Palau using in situ temperature measurements, satellite altimetry data, and ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II)...

  • Barlow M., Gutowski W.J, Gyakum J.R, Katz R.W, Lim Y.K, Schumacher R.S, Wehner M.F, Agel L., Bosilovich M., Collow A. et al..  2019.  North American extreme precipitation events and related large-scale meteorological patterns: a review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends. 53:6835-6875.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper surveys the current state of knowledge regarding large-scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) associated with short-duration (less than 1 week) extreme precipitation events over North America. In contrast to teleconnections, which are typically defined based on the characteristic spatial variations of a meteorological field or on the remote circulation response to a known forcing, LSMPs are defined relative to the occurrence of a...

  • Stewart J.D, Smith T.R, Marsha G., Abernathy K., Fonseca-Ponce I.A, Froman N., Stevens G.MW.  2019.  Novel applications of animal-borne Crittercams reveal thermocline feeding in two species of manta ray. 632:145-158.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many marine species rely on oceanographic processes to aggregate prey sources and facilitate feeding opportunities. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of oceanographic fronts in the movement and foraging ecology of both predatory and filter feeding marine species. Fewer studies have investigated the importance of vertical pycnoclines (e.g. thermoclines) as foraging queues and prey aggregators. Manta rays, large batoid filter...

  • Garwood J.C, Lucas A.J, Naughton P., Alford MH, Roberts P.LD, Jaffe J.S, DeGelleke L., Franks PJS.  2019.  A novel cross-shore transport mechanism revealed by subsurface, robotic larval mimics: Internal wave deformation of the background velocity field.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coastal physical processes are essential for the cross-shore transport of meroplanktonic larvae to their benthic adult habitats. To investigate these processes, we released a swarm of novel, trackable, subsurface vehicles, the Mini-Autonomous Underwater Explorer (M-AUEs), which we programmed to mimic larval depth-keeping behavior. The M-AUE swarm measured a sudden net onshore transport of 30-70 m over 15-20 min, which we investigated in...

  • Siegelman M., Merrifield M.A, Firing E., MacKinnon JA, Alford MH, Voet G., Wijesekera H.W, Schramek T.A, Zeiden K.L, Terrill E.J.  2019.  Observations of near-inertial surface currents at Palau. 32:74-83.
    Abstract Summary:

    An impulsive or rotary wind stress can excite near-inertial oscillations (NIOs) in the surface mixed layer. Although previous work shows that coastal boundaries modify NIOs, few studies have explored their behavior near island topography. Understanding how topography modifies NIOs provides insight into physical processes that contribute to local mixing, which enhances biological richness near islands. Here, encounters between NIOs and the...

  • Panovska S., Korte M., Constable C.G.  2019.  One hundred thousand years of geomagnetic field evolution.
    Abstract Summary:

    Paleomagnetic records from sediments, archeological artifacts, and lava flows provide the foundation for studying geomagnetic field changes over 0-100 ka. Late Quaternary time-varying spherical harmonic models for 0-100 ka produce a global view used to evaluate new data records, study the paleomagnetic secular variation on centennial to multimillennial timescales, and investigate extreme regional or global events such as the Laschamp...

  • Fredrickson E.K, Wilcock W.SD, Schmidt D.A, MacCready P., Roland E., Kurapov A.L, Zumberge M.A, Sasagawa G.S.  2019.  Optimizing sensor configurations for the detection of slow-slip earthquakes in seafloor pressure records, using the Cascadia Subduction Zone as a case study.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present seafloor pressure records from the Cascadia Subduction Zone, alongside oceanographic and geophysical models, to evaluate the spatial uniformity of bottom pressure and optimize the geometry of sensor networks for resolving offshore slow-slip transients. Seafloor pressure records from 2011 to 2015 show that signal amplitudes are depth-dependent, with tidally filtered and detrended root-mean-squares of 6 cm on the continental shelf....

  • Amaya D.J.  2019.  The Pacific Meridional Mode and ENSO: A Review. 5:296-307.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper reviews recent progress in understanding of the North Pacific Meridional Mode (NPMM) and its influence on the timing, magnitude, flavor, and intensity of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recent Findings The NPMM is a seasonally evolving mode of coupled climate variability and features several distinct opportunities to influence ENSO. They include: (1) AWind-Evaporation-SST (WES) feedback-driven propagation of surface...

  • Gopalakrishnan G, Cornuelle BD.  2019.  Palau's effects on regional-scale ocean circulation. 32:126-135.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Republic of Palau, a group of islands in the western tropical Pacific Ocean, is located between the westwardflowing North Equatorial Current (NEC) to the north and the eastward-flowing North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) to the south, and the Mindanao Eddy (ME) lies to the west. This unique geographical location may make Palau an oceanographically sensitive region due to strong equatorial zonal flows encountering steep island...

  • Cusack J.M, Voet G., Alford MH, Girton J.B, Carter G.S, Pratt L.J, Pearson-Potts K.A, Tan S.W.  2019.  Persistent turbulence in the Samoan Passage. 49:3179-3197.
    Abstract Summary:

    Abyssal waters forming the lower limb of the global overturning circulation flow through the Samoan Passage and are modified by intense mixing. Thorpe-scale-based estimates of dissipation from moored profilers deployed on top of two sills for 17 months reveal that turbulence is continuously generated in the passage. Overturns were observed in a density band in which the Richardson number was often smaller than 1/4, consistent with shear...

  • Tian Z., Chen H., Fegley B., Lodders K., Barrat J.A, Day JMD, Wang K..  2019.  Potassium isotopic compositions of howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. 266:611-632.
    Abstract Summary:

    We report new high-precision stable K isotope data for three martian meteorites, one lunar meteorite, one ordinary chondrite, four terrestrial igneous United States Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, and twenty howardite-eucrite-dio genite [HED] meteorites. The three martian meteorites define a relatively narrow delta K-41 range with an average of -0.36 +/- 0.12 parts per thousand (2 SD) that is slightly heavier than the Bulk...

  • Rajput A., Poudel S., Tsunemoto H., Meehan M., Szubin R., Olson C.A, Lamsa A., Seif Y., Dillon N., Vrbanac A. et al..  2019.  Profiling the effect of nafcillin on HA-MRSA D712 using bacteriological and physiological media. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Staphylococcus aureus strains have been continuously evolving resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics including methicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid, compounding the enormous healthcare and economic burden of the pathogen. Cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CA-MHB) is the standard bacteriological media for measuring antibiotic susceptibility in the clinical lab, but the use of media that more closely mimic the...

  • Resplandy L., Keeling RF, Eddebbar Y., Brooks M., Wang R., Bopp L., Long M.C, Dunne J.P, Koeve W., Oschlies A..  2019.  Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O-2 and CO2 composition. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    The ocean is the main source of thermal inertia in the climate system. Ocean heat uptake during recent decades has been quantified using ocean temperature measurements. However, these estimates all use the same imperfect ocean dataset and share additional uncertainty due to sparse coverage, especially before 2007. Here, we provide an independent estimate by using measurements of atmospheric oxygen (O-2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) - levels of...

  • Schmidt J.M, Flatau P.J, Harasti P.R, Yates R.D, Delene D.J, Gapp N.J, Kohri W.J, Vetter J.R, Nachamkin J.E, Parent M.G et al..  2019.  Radar detection of individual raindrops. 100:2433-2450.
    Abstract Summary:

    Descriptions of the experimental design and research highlights obtained from a series of four multiagency field projects held near Cape Canaveral, Florida, are presented. The experiments featured a 3 MW, dual-polarization, C-band Doppler radar that serves in a dual capacity as both a precipitation and cloud radar. This duality stems from a combination of the radar's high sensitivity and extremely small-resolution volumes produced by the...

  • Hetherington E.D, Kurle C.M, Benson S.R, Jones T.T, Seminoff J.A.  2019.  Re-examining trophic dead ends: stable isotope values link gelatinous zooplankton to leatherback turtles in the California Current. 632:205-219.
    Abstract Summary:

    Predator-prey interactions provide essential information for tracing energy flow through food webs and evaluating the structure and function of ecosystems. In pelagic environments, these interactions are often difficult to discern, which is problematic for identifying specific energy pathways that support populations of protected species. We examined the trophic ecology of an endangered population of leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In 2012, California completed its marine protected area (MPA) planning and designation process, yielding a network of 124 MPAs from the Mexican border to Oregon. The management effort that has followed is comprehensive and strategic, with a focus on scientific monitoring, interagency coordination, public education and outreach, and enforcement. Initial monitoring results show more and bigger fish, especially in older MPAs where the benefits...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Trait-based simplifications of plankton community structure require accurate assessment of trait values as expressed in situ. Yet planktonic organisms live suspended in a fluid medium and often bear elongate appendages, delicate feeding structures, and mucous houses that are badly damaged upon capture or removal from the fluid environment. Fixatives further distort organisms. In situ imaging of zooplankton from a fully autonomous Zooglider...

  • Baker M.G, Aster R.C, Anthony R.E, Chaput J., Wiens D.A, Nyblade A., Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A.  2019.  Seasonal and spatial variations in the ocean-coupled ambient wavefield of the Ross Ice Shelf. 65:912-925.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is host to a broadband, multimode seismic wavefield that is excited in response to atmospheric, oceanic and solid Earth source processes. A 34-station broadband seismographic network installed on the RIS from late 2014 through early 2017 produced continuous vibrational observations of Earth's largest ice shelf at both floating and grounded locations. We characterize temporal and spatial variations in broadband ambient...

  • Blackman D.K, Abe N., Carlson R.L, Guerin G., Ildefonse B., Kumpf A..  2019.  Seismic properties of gabbroic sections in oceanic core complexes: constraints from seafloor drilling. 40:557-569.
    Abstract Summary:

    The physical properties of rock within Oceanic Core Complexes (OCC) provide information about the history of magmatism, deformation and alteration associated with detachment faulting and unroofing of their gabbroic sequences. New core and logging data from Atlantis Bank (AB) OCC are compared with prior deep sea drilling data from this site on the Southwest Indian Ridge, as well as from Atlantis Massif (AM) OCC on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The...

  • Lee S.W, Yon D.K, James C.C, Lee S., Koh H.Y, Sheen Y.H, Oh J.W, Han M.Y, Sugihara G.  2019.  Short-term effects of multiple outdoor environmental factors on risk of asthma exacerbations: Age-stratified time-series analysis. 144:1542-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Although the different age groups had differences in sensitivity of asthma exacerbations (AEs) to environmental factors, no comprehensive study has examined the age-stratified effects of environmental factors on AEs. Objective: We sought to examine the short-term effects in age-stratified groups (infants, preschool children, school-aged children, adults, and the elderly) of outdoor environmental factors (air pollutants, weather...

  • Ren M., Zhang H.H, Benmarhnia T., Jalaludin B., Dong H.T, Wu K.P, Wang Q., Huang C.R.  2019.  Short-term effects of real-time personal PM2.5 exposure on ambulatory blood pressure: A panel study in young adults. 697
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to be associated with changes in blood pressure. However, most of the evidence is based on PM2.5 measurements from fixed stations and resting blood pressure measured at a regular time. Objectives: To evaluate the short-term daily and hourly effects of real-time personal PM2.5 exposure on ambulatory blood pressure, and to compare the effects with those of PM2.5 exposure from fixed...

  • Carter G.S, Voet G., Alford MH, Girton J.B, Mickett J.B, Klymak J.M, Pratt L.J, Pearson-Potts K.A, Cusack J.M, Tan S.W.  2019.  A spatial geography of abyssal turbulent mixing in the Samoan Passage. 32:194-203.
    Abstract Summary:

    High levels of turbulent mixing have long been suspected in the Samoan Passage, an important topographic constriction in the deep limb of the Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation. Along the length of the passage, observations undertaken in 2012 and 2014 showed the bottom water warmed by similar to 55 millidegrees Celsius and decreased in density by 0.01 kg m(-3). Spatial analysis of this first-ever microstructure survey conducted in the...

  • Franks PJS, Garwood J.C, Ouimet M., Cortes J., Musgrave R.C, Lucas A.J.  2019.  Stokes drift of plankton in linear internal waves: Cross-shore transport of neutrally buoyant and depth-keeping organisms.
    Abstract Summary:

    The meroplanktonic larvae of many invertebrate and vertebrate species rely on physical transport to move them across the shelf to their adult habitats. One potential mechanism for cross-shore larval transport is Stokes drift in internal waves. Here, we develop theory to quantify the Stokes velocities of neutrally buoyant and depth-keeping organisms in linear internal waves in shallow water. We apply the analyses to theoretical and measured...

  • Lampe R.H, Wang S., Cassar N., Marchetti A..  2019.  Strategies among phytoplankton in response to alleviation of nutrient stress in a subtropical gyre. 13:2984-2997.
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

  • Levy Y., Rockwell T.K, Shaw J.H, Plesch A., Driscoll NW, Perea H..  2019.  Structural modeling of the Western Transverse Ranges: An imbricated thrust ramp architecture. 11:868-883.
    Abstract Summary:

    Active fold-and-thrust belts can potentially accommodate large-magnitude earthquakes, so understanding the structure in such regions has both societal and scientific importance. Recent studies have provided evidence for large earthquakes in the Western Transverse Ranges of California, USA. However, the diverse set of conflicting structural models for this region highlights the lack of understanding of the subsurface geometry of faults. A more...

  • Gallimore E., Anderson M., Freitag L., Terrill E.  2019.  Synthetic baseline navigation using phase-coherent acoustic communication signals. 146:4831-4841.
    Abstract Summary:

    The development of a synthetic baseline navigation technique that self-localizes an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) using intermittent acoustic communications signals received by a single transducer is described, along with field results from in-ocean tests. The method uses the phase measurement at the output of a second-order phase-locked loop to create fine-scale pseudorange estimates in addition to, or in the absence of, a one-way...

  • Kuhn A.M, Dutkicwicz S., Jahn O., Clayton S., Ryncarson T.A, Mazloff MR, Barton A.D.  2019.  Temporal and spatial scales of correlation in marine phytoplankton communities.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean circulation shapes marine phytoplankton communities by setting environmental conditions and dispersing organisms. In addition, processes acting on the water column (e.g., heat fluxes and mixing) affect the community structure by modulating environmental variables that determine in situ growth and loss rates. Understanding the scales over which phytoplankton communities vary in time and space is key to elucidate the relative...

  • Schramek T.A, Cornuelle BD, Gopalakrishnan G, Colin P.L, Rowley S.J, Merrifield M.A, Terrill E.J.  2019.  Tropical western Pacific thermal structure and its relationship to ocean surface variables: A numerical state estimate and forereef temperature records. 32:156-163.
    Abstract Summary:

    Complex interactions between open ocean and nearshore environments pose a predictability problem. Basin-scale ocean models are typically run at grid scales that do not accurately resolve individual islands, and model output is assessed mostly using observations of the open ocean. Thus, model ability to replicate island forereef oceanic variability has gone largely untested. Here, an eight-year regional state estimate covering 2009-2017 is...

  • St Laurent L., Ijichi T., Merrifield S.T, Shapiro J., Simmons H.L.  2019.  Turbulence and vorticity in the wake of Palau. 32:102-109.
    Abstract Summary:

    The inleraclion of flow with sleep island and ridge topography at the Palau island chain leads to rich vorticity fields that generate a cascade of motions. The energy transfer to small scales removes energy from the large-scale mean flow of the equatorial current systems and feeds energy to the fine and microstructure scales where instability mechanisms lead to turbulence and dissipation. Until now, direct assessments of the turbulence...

  • Merrifield S.T, Schramek T.A, Celona S., Boas A.BV, Colin P.L, Terrill E.J.  2019.  Typhoon-forced waves around a western Pacific island nation. 32:56-65.
    Abstract Summary:

    Over the last decade, the Pacific island nation of Palau, situated at 7 degrees N, has had a number of close encounters with Category 4 and 5 typhoons, including the named storms Bopha, Haiyan, and Lan in 2012, 2013, and 2017, respectively. Although historically, due to its low latitude location, typhoon activity has been rare in Palau, it was in the direct path of typhoons Bopha and Haiyan, which caused extensive wind damage, reef...

  • Rudnick D.L, Zeiden K.A, Ou C.Y, Johnston T.MS, MacKinnon JA, Alford MH, Voet G..  2019.  Understanding vorticity caused by flow passing an island. 32:66-73.
    Abstract Summary:

    This article presents a pedagogical approach toward understanding vorticity generated in flow past an island. The ubiquity of eddies in the ocean motivates the use of vorticity to quantify their rotation, and we define two kinds of vorticity: relative vorticity, that is, the vorticity of an eddy relative to Earth, and planetary vorticity, Earth's spin relative to local vertical. The ratio of relative to planetary vorticity is the Rossby...

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