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Recent Publications

  • Hondula DM, Balling RC, Vanos JK, Georgescu M.  2015.  Rising Temperatures, Human Health, and the Role of Adaptation. 1:144-154.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is near consensus in the scientific community that humans will experience higher future temperatures due to the ongoing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The human response to this climatic change, particularly if accompanied by a surge in extreme heat events, is a key topic being addressed by scientists across many disciplines. In this article, we review recent (2012–2015) research on human health impacts of observed...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The formerly monotypic taxon, Hyalopale bispinosa Perkins 1985 (Cluysopetalinac), is comprised of a cryptic species complex from predominantly tropical embayments and island reefs of the Western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. Hyalopale species are of meiofaunal size (length: 1-2.8mm), but considered non-interstitial, with the majority of species inhabiting a singular habitat of shallow littoral zones among algae and epifauna overlying...

  • Taylor J.RA, Scott N.I, Rouse GW.  2019.  Evolution of mantis shrimp telson armour and its role in ritualized fighting. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Mantis shrimp possess both formidable weapons and impact-resistant armour that clash during ritualized combat. The telson is one of few biological structures known to withstand the repeated high impact forces of smashing mantis shrimp strikes, and it is hypothesized that this pairing of armour and weapon is associated with the evolution of telson sparring. We carried out a comparative analysis of telson impact mechanics across 15 mantis...

  • Inman B.G, Davies CJ, Torres C.R, Franks PJS.  2020.  Deformation of ambient chemical gradients by sinking spheres. 892
    Abstract Summary:

    A sphere sinking through a chemical gradient drags fluid with it, deforming the gradient. The sphere leaves a trail of gradient enhancement that persists longer than the velocity disturbance in the Reynolds , Froude and Peclet regime considered here. We quantify the enhancement of the gradient and the diffusive flux in the trail of disturbed chemical left by the passing sphere using a combination of numerical simulations and scaling analyses...

  • da Silva R.M, Carrao D.B, Habenschus M.D, Jimenez P.C, Lops N.P, Fenical W, Costa-Lotufo L.V, de Oliveira A.RM.  2020.  Prediction of seriniquinone-drug interactions by in vitro inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes. 65
    Abstract Summary:

    Seriniquinone is a secondary metabolite isolated from a rare marine bacterium of the genus Serinicoccus. This natural quinone is highlighted for its selective cytotoxic activity toward melanoma cancer cells, in which rapid metastatic properties are still a challenge for clinical treatment of malignant melanoma. The progress of seriniquinone as a promising bioactive molecule for drug development requires the assessment of its clinical...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We use a multiple-scale expansion to average the wave action balance equation over an ensemble of sea-surface velocity fields characteristic of the ocean mesoscale and submesoscale. Assuming that the statistical properties of the flow are stationary and homogeneous, we derive an expression for a diffusivity tensor of surface-wave action density. The small parameter in this expansion is the ratio of surface current speed to gravity wave group...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We use microstructural, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and crystal vorticity axis (CVA) analyses to evaluate the effects of quartz Dauphine twinning on strain localization. We compare a granodiorite mylonite and a tonalite mylonite from the Grebe Shear Zone, a mid-crustal transpressional shear zone in Fiordland, New Zealand. EBSD analysis reveals identical quartz grain boundary migration dynamic recrystallization microstructures in...

  • Dichiera A.M, McMillan O.JL, Clifford A.M, Goss G.G, Brauner C.J, Esbaugh A.J.  2020.  The importance of a single amino acid substitution in reduced red blood cell carbonic anhydrase function of early-diverging fish. 190:287-296.
    Abstract Summary:

    In most vertebrates, red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (RBC CA) plays a critical role in carbon dioxide (CO2) transport and excretion across epithelial tissues. Many early-diverging fishes (e.g., hagfish and chondrichthyans) are unique in possessing plasma-accessible membrane-bound CA-IV in the gills, allowing some CO2 excretion to occur without involvement from the RBCs. However, implications of this on RBC CA function are unclear. Through...

  • Johnson N.C, Amaya D.J, Ding Q.H, Kosaka Y, Tokinaga H., Xie SP.  2020.  Multidecadal modulations of key metrics of global climate change. 188
    Abstract Summary:

    Widespread public and scientific interest in the recent global warming hiatus and related multidecadal climate variability stimulated a surge in our understanding of key metrics of global climate change. While seeking explanations for the nearly steady global mean temperature from late 1990s through the early 2010s, the scientific community also grappled with concomitant and seemingly inconsistent changes in other metrics. For example, over...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Normal-mode structure coefficients are crucial observations to infer the velocity, density and attenuation structure of the deep Earth interior, but estimating these coefficients from Earth's normal mode spectra is a non-linear inverse problem. Additionally, complete source information is typically unknown for large earthquakes, and there is a trade-off between the earthquake source and attenuation. Therefore, proper estimation of elastic and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The current interseismic period for an event on the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is similar to 300 years, much greater than the best-estimated average recurrence interval of similar to 180 years, prompting questions regarding earthquake recurrence and fault behavior. Digital Surface Models (DSMs) generated using Structure-from-Motion-Multiview Stereo (SfM-MVS) techniques on unmanned aerial systems (UAS) imagery and...

  • Quek R.ZB, Jain S.S, Neo M.L, Rouse GW, Huang DW.  2020.  Transcriptome-based target-enrichment baits for stony corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia). 20
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite the ecological and economic significance of stony corals (Scleractinia), a robust understanding of their phylogeny remains elusive due to patchy taxonomic and genetic sampling, as well as the limited availability of informative markers. To increase the number of genetic loci available for phylogenomic analyses in Scleractinia, we designed 15,919 DNA enrichment baits targeting 605 orthogroups (mean 565 +/- SD 366 bp) over 1,139 exon...

  • Walker H.J, Hastings PA, Hyde J.R, Lea R.N, Snodgrass O.E, Bellquist L.F.  2020.  Unusual occurrences of fishes in the Southern California Current System during the warm water period of 2014-2018. 236
    Abstract Summary:

    An unusually long period of warm-water temperatures occurred off southern California (USA) in 2014-2018, and the highest sea-surface temperature ever recorded in a 103-year span of continuous data collection occurred in August 2018. Poleward distributional shifts in the geographic range of hundreds of marine organisms worldwide have been documented during or just after this and similar anomalously warm periods. We report on the unusual...

  • Zhang Y., Chen C.S, Xue P.F, Beardsley R.C, Franks PJS.  2020.  A view of physical mechanisms for transporting harmful algal blooms to Massachusetts Bay. 154
    Abstract Summary:

    Physical dynamics of Harmful Algal Blooms in Massachusetts Bay in May 2005 and 2008 were examined by the simulated results. Reverse particle-tracking experiments suggest that the toxic phytoplankton mainly originated from the Bay of Fundy in 2005 and the western Maine coastal region and its local rivers in 2008. Mechanism studies suggest that the phytoplankton were advected by the Gulf of Maine Coastal Current (GMCC). In 2005, Nor'easters...

  • Santana-Morales O., Cartamil D., Sosa-Nishizaki O., Zertuche-Chanes R., Hernandez-Gutierrez E., Graham J..  2020.  Artisanal elasmobranch fisheries of northwestern Baja California, Mexico. 46:1-18.
    Abstract Summary:

    Elasmobranch species composition and spatiotemporal variability can often be characterized from landing surveys of local fisheries, with important management implications. In the present study, we describe the elasmobranch landing composition of 4 major artisanal fishing ports in northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Sampling was conducted opportunistically between 1995 and 2010 and included an effort of 684 fishing days. Species composition...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Between 0.1 and 0.5 Hz, infrasound signals recorded in the atmosphere are dominated by ocean-generated noise called microbaroms. Microbaroms propagate through the atmosphere over thousands of kilometres due to low absorption and efficient ducting between the ground and the stratopause. Different theoretical models have been developed to characterize the source of microbaroms, all based on the second-order nonlinear interaction of ocean waves...

  • Wangpraseurt D, You S, Azam F, Jacucci G, Gaidarenko O, Hildebrand M, Kühl M, Smith AG, Davey MP, Smith A et al..  2020.  Bionic 3D printed corals. 11:1748.
    Abstract Summary:

    Corals have evolved as optimized photon augmentation systems, leading to space-efficient microalgal growth and outstanding photosynthetic quantum efficiencies. Light attenuation due to algal self-shading is a key limiting factor for the upscaling of microalgal cultivation. Coral-inspired light management systems could overcome this limitation and facilitate scalable bioenergy and bioproduct generation. Here, we develop 3D printed bionic...

  • Park Y., Seong W., Gerstoft P.  2020.  Block-sparse two-dimensional off-grid beamforming with arbitrary planar array geometry. 147:2184-2191.
    Abstract Summary:

    For a sound field observed on a planar sensor array, compressive sensing (CS) reconstructs the two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) of multiple sources using a sparsity constraint. Conventional compressive beamforming methods suffer from grid mismatch, where true DOAs do not fall on the discretized angular search grid. This paper adopts a CS-based model, which can reconstruct block-sparse signals, and the model treats DOAs and the...

  • Tang X.Y, Kudo Y., Baker J.L, LaBonte S., Jordan P.A, McKinnie S.MK, Guo J., Huan T., Moore BS, Edlund A..  2020.  Cariogenic Streptococcus mutans produces tetramic acid strain-specific antibiotics that impair commensal colonization. 6:563-571.
    Abstract Summary:

    Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth decay). In this study, we elucidated the biosynthetic pathway encoded by muc, a hybrid polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC), present in a number of globally distributed S. mutans strains. The natural products synthesized by muc included three N-acyl tetramic acid...

  • Sierks M.D, Kalansky J., Cannon F., Ralph FM.  2020.  Characteristics, origins, and impacts of summertime extreme precipitation in the Lake Mead watershed. 33:2663-2680.
    Abstract Summary:

    The North American monsoon (NAM) is the main driver of summertime climate variability in the U.S. Southwest. Previous studies of the NAM have primarily focused on the Tier I region of the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME), spanning central-western Mexico, southern Arizona, and New Mexico. This study, however, presents a climatological characterization of summertime precipitation, defined as July-September (JAS), in the Lake Mead...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The value of bioassays as analytical methods for assessing the potency of particular stressors on live animal models depends on the precision of their results, which are greatly influenced by the choice of test subjects. The genetic makeup of experimental subjects varies, and, as such, so will their responses to the test environment. Genetic diversity of test populations may contribute to statistical variability; therefore, the use of...

  • French B.J, Lim Y.W, Zgliczynski B.J, Edwards R.A, Rohwer F, Sandin SA.  2020.  Decoding diversity in a coral reef fish species complex with restricted range using metagenomic sequencing of gut contents. 10:3413-3423.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aim Identification of the processes that generate and maintain species diversity within the same region can provide insight into biogeographic patterns at broader spatiotemporal scales. Hawkfishes in the genus Paracirrhites are a unique taxon to explore with respect to niche differentiation, exhibiting diagnostic differences in coloration, and an apparent center of distribution outside of the Indo-Malay-Philippine (IMP) biodiversity hotspot...

  • Mikhalevsky P.N, Sperry B.J, Woolfe K.F, Dzieciuch M.A, Worcester P.F.  2020.  Deep ocean long range underwater navigation. 147:2365-2382.
    Abstract Summary:

    A long range Underwater Navigation Algorithm (UNA) is described that provides a geolocation underwater while submerged without having to surface for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position. The UNA only uses measured acoustic travel times from a constellation of underwater acoustic sources analogous to the constellation of satellites in GNSS. The UNA positions are calculated without any a priori track, position or sound speed...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet (LLJ) is an important contributor for water vapor transport within atmospheric rivers, though its dynamics are not completely understood. The present study investigates the LLJ using dropsonde observations from 24 cross-atmospheric river transects taken during the CalWater-2014, 2015 and the AR-Recon 2016, 2018 field campaigns. It is found that the LLJ, located at similar to 1-km elevation ahead of the cold...

  • Hagen C.J, Reilly B.T, Stoner J.S, Creveling J.R.  2020.  Dynamic time warping of palaeomagnetic secular variation data. 221:706-721.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present and make publicly available a dynamic programming algorithm to simultaneously align the inclination and declination vector directions of sedimentary palaeomagnetic secular variation data. This algorithm generates a library of possible alignments through the systematic variation of assumptions about the relative accumulation rate and shared temporal overlap of two or more time-series. The palaeomagnetist can then evaluate this...

  • Jagannathan A., Winters KB, Armi L..  2020.  The effect of a strong density step on blocked stratified flow over topography. 889
    Abstract Summary:

    The dynamical connection between topographic control and wave excitation aloft is investigated theoretically and numerically in the idealized setting of two-dimensional stratified flow over an isolated ridge. We consider a constant far upstream inflow with uniform stratification except for a sharp density step located above the height of the ridge crest. Below this step, the stratification is sufficiently strong that the low level flow is...

  • Pan B.J, Vernet M, Manck L., Forsch K., Ekern L., Mascioni M., Barbeau K.A, Almandoz GO, Orona A.J.  2020.  Environmental drivers of phytoplankton taxonomic composition in an Antarctic fjord. 183
    Abstract Summary:

    The impact of ice-ocean interaction on the Southern Ocean is expected to intensify in the future. However, its influence on phytoplankton community composition remains an open question. The Antarctic Peninsula fjords offer an ideal system to understand the effect of ice-ocean forcing on phytoplankton community, providing an extreme in the spatial gradient from the glacio-marine boundary to the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) continental...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AA) is increasingly used in ecological and biogeochemical studies tracking the origin and fate of nitrogen (N). Its advantages include the potential for resolving finer-scale trophic dynamics than possible with standard bulk SIA and for reconstructing historical changes in the food webs of consumers from analyses of specimens in preserved sample archives. For the latter, assessing the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Impactors striking the Moon since the formation of its crust have left an indelible imprint on the lunar surface, in the guise of craters and associated impact rocks. The lunar crust has low intrinsic abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd, Au), at greater than 3000 times lower than in chondrite meteorites. Consequently, during impact, bolides with chondritic or differentiated iron-rich compositions...

  • Song HC, Byun G..  2020.  Extrapolating Green's functions using the waveguide invariant theory. 147:2150-2158.
    Abstract Summary:

    The broadband interference structure of sound propagation in a waveguide can be described by the waveguide invariant, beta, that manifests itself as striations in the frequency-range plane. At any given range (r), there is a striation pattern in frequency (omega), which is the Fourier transform of the multipath impulse response (or Green's function). Moving to a different range (r+Delta r), the same pattern is retained but is either stretched...

  • Ilango S.D, Weaver M., Sheridan P., Schwarz L., Clemesha R.ES, Bruckner T., Basu R., Gershunov A, Benmarhnia T..  2020.  Extreme heat episodes and risk of preterm birth in California, 2005-2013. 137
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Identifying potentially modifiable triggers toward the end of gestation, such as extreme heat, can improve understanding of the role of acute stress on early deliveries and inform warning systems. In this study we examined the association between extreme heat, variously defined during the last week of gestation, and risk of preterm birth among mothers in...

  • Faktorova D., Nisbet R.ER, Robledo J.AF, Casacuberta E., Sudek L., Allen A.E, Ares M., Areste C., Balestreri C., Barbrook A.C et al..  2020.  Genetic tool development in marine protists: emerging model organisms for experimental cell biology.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diverse microbial ecosystems underpin life in the sea. Among these microbes are many unicellular eukaryotes that span the diversity of the eukaryotic tree of life. However, genetic tractability has been limited to a few species, which do not represent eukaryotic diversity or environmentally relevant taxa. Here, we report on the development of genetic tools in a range of protists primarily from marine environments. We present evidence for...

  • Cannon F., Cordeira JM, Hecht C.W, Norris J.R, Michaelis A., Demirdjian R., Ralph FM.  2020.  GPM satellite radar observations of precipitation mechanisms in atmospheric rivers. 148:1449-1463.
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite numerous studies documenting the importance of atmospheric rivers (AR) to the global water cycle and regional precipitation, the evolution of their water vapor fluxes has been difficult to investigate given the challenges of observing and modeling precipitation processes within ARs over the ocean. This study uses satellite-based radar reflectivity profiles from the Global Precipitation Measurement Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (...

  • Jacobs-Palmer E., Gallego R., Ramon-Laca A., Kunselman E., Cribari K., Horwith M., Kelly R.P.  2020.  A halo of reduced dinoflagellate abundances in and around eelgrass beds. 8
    Abstract Summary:

    Seagrass beds provide a variety of ecosystem services, both within and outside the bounds of the habitat itself. Here we use environmental DNA (eDNA) amplicons to analyze a broad cross-section of taxa from ecological communities in and immediately surrounding eelgrass (Zostera marina). Sampling seawater along transects extending alongshore outward from eelgrass beds, we demonstrate that eDNA provides meter-scale resolution of communities in...

  • Long X.Y, Widlansky M.J, Schloesser F., Thompson P.R, Annamalai H., Merrifield M.A, Yoon H..  2020.  Higher sea levels at Hawaii caused by strong El Nino and weak trade winds. 33:3037-3059.
    Abstract Summary:

    Hawaii experienced record-high sea levels during 2017, which followed the 2015 strong El Nino and coincided with weak trade winds in the tropical northeastern Pacific. The record sea levels were associated with a combination of processes, an important contributing factor of which was the persistent high sea level (similar to 10 cm above normal) over a large region stretching between Hawaii and Mexico. High sea levels at Mexico are known to...

  • Chen L.W, Xu J., Soh S.E, Aris I.M, Tint M.T, Gluckman P.D, Tan K.H, Shek L.PC, Chong Y.S, Yap F. et al..  2020.  Implication of gut microbiota in the association between infant antibiotic exposure and childhood obesity and adiposity accumulation.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background In animal studies early life antibiotic exposure causes metabolic abnormalities including obesity through microbiota disruption, but evidence from human studies is scarce. We examined involvement of gut microbiota in the associations between infant antibiotic exposure and childhood adiposity. Methods Infant antibiotic exposure in the first year of life was ascertained using parental reports during interviewer-administered...

  • Holanda B.A, Pohlker M.L, Walter D., Saturno J., Sorgel M., Ditas J., Ditas F., Schulz C., Franco M.A, Wang Q et al..  2020.  Influx of African biomass burning aerosol during the Amazonian dry season through layered transatlantic transport of black carbon-rich smoke. 20:4757-4785.
    Abstract Summary:

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols influence the Earth's atmosphere and climate, but their microphysical properties, spatiotemporal distribution, and long-range transport are not well constrained. This study presents airborne observations of the transatlantic transport of BC-rich African biomass burning (BB) smoke into the Amazon Basin using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) as well as several complementary techniques. We base our results on...

  • Kubicko J.S, Verlinden C.M, Sarkar J., Sabra KG, Nichols B.V, Martin J.S, Fagan A.I.  2020.  Information content of ship noise on a drifting volumetric array for passive environmental sensing. 45:607-630.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study investigates the information content of ship noise received on a drifting volumetric array of hydrophones in shallow water marine environments for the purposes of conducting acoustic thermometry or other environmental inversions. Passive inversions for physical oceanographic parameters are conducted using travel time differences, determined by cross-correlating ship noise received on hydrophones suspended beneath drifting buoys....

  • Abstract Summary:

    Neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been widely detected in diverse aquatic organisms and hypothesized as an environmental risk to neurodegenerative diseases in humans. However, the knowledge of its toxicity to marine organisms requires attention. In the present study, embryos and sperm of the sea urchin, Lytechinus pictus, were used to assess the toxicity of BMAA. Effects of BMAA on fertilization and development of sea urchin...

  • Montiel-Alvarez A.M, Romo J.M, Constable S, Gomez-Trevino E..  2020.  Invariant TE and TM impedances in the marine magnetotelluric method. 221:163-177.
    Abstract Summary:

    The magnetotelluric (MT) impedance tensor has a nil diagonal when one of the axes of the coordinate system coincides with the strike of a 2-D structure. In general, real data are full tensors either because of 3-D effects or measurements not aligned to the geological strike. The usual practice to adapt the field tensor to the 2-D assumption is to rotate to a new system of coordinates. In most cases, there is no single angle of rotation that...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Several temperate marine taxa of the northern hemisphere follow a trans-Pacific biogeographic track with representatives on either side of the intervening boreal waters. Shelter-dwelling blenniiform fishes of the genus Neoclinus exhibit this trans-Pacific distribution pattern with three species in the eastern North Pacific and eight species in the western North Pacific. We reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neocliniini (Neoclinus and the...

  • Gallimore E., Terrill E, Pietruszka A., Gee J., Nager A., Hess R..  2020.  Magnetic survey and autonomous target reacquisition with a scalar magnetometer on a small AUV.
    Abstract Summary:

    A scalar magnetometer payload has been developed and integrated into a two-man portable autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for geophysical and archeological surveys. The compact system collects data from a Geometrics microfabricated atomic magnetometer, a total-field atomic magnetometer. Data from the sensor is both stored for post-processing and made available to an onboard autonomy engine for real-time sense and react behaviors. This...

  • Esquivel T.A, Flores C., Ortega V.R, Constable S, Gomez-Trevino E., Gonzalez-Fernandez A..  2020.  Magnetotelluric exploration of the Wagner Basin, Gulf of California, Mexico: Evidence for an axial magma chamber and hydrothermal circulation. 99
    Abstract Summary:

    Different geological and geophysical disciplines have suggested the Wagner Basin as a promising location of geothermal resources. As a reconnaissance tool Magnetotelluric (MT) data were measured at 10 sites along a profile over this basin in the northern Gulf of California. The subsurface distribution of electric resistivity was estimated with two-dimensional smooth inversion using the apparent resistivities and phases from both field...

  • Goffredi S.K, Tilic E., Mullin S.W, Dawson K.S, Keller A., Lee R.W, Wu F.B, Levin L.A, Rouse GW, Cordes E.E et al..  2020.  Methanotrophic bacterial symbionts fuel dense populations of deep-sea feather duster worms (Sabellida, Annelida) and extend the spatial influence of methane seepage. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Deep-sea cold seeps are dynamic sources of methane release and unique habitats supporting ocean biodiversity and productivity. Here, we describe newly discovered animal-bacterial symbioses fueled by methane, between two species of annelid (a serpulid Laminatubus and sabellid Bispira) and distinct aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the Methylococcales, localized to the host respiratory crown. Worm tissue delta C-13 of -44 to -58...

  • Day JMD, Moynier F., Sossi P.A, Wang K., Meshik A.P, Pravdivtseva O.V, Pettit D.R.  2020.  Moderately volatile element behaviour at high temperature determined from nuclear detonation. 13:54-60.
    Abstract Summary:

    The first nuclear detonation, at the Trinity test site, is an analogue for high temperature volatile loss during planet formation processes. We report Cu isotope and abundance data, comparing them with Zn and K isotopes in trinitite glasses sampled with distance from the detonation centre. Copper concentrations drop, and isotopic compositions become -0.3 % higher with proximity to the detonation. Relative sensitivity to high temperature...

  • Tamsitt V., Cerovecki I, Josey S.A, Gille ST, Schulz E..  2020.  Mooring observations of air-sea heat fluxes in two subantarctic mode water formation regions. 33:2757-2777.
    Abstract Summary:

    Wintertime surface ocean heat loss is the key process driving the formation of Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW), but there are few direct observations of heat fluxes, particularly during winter. The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) Southern Ocean mooring in the southeast Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS) in the southeast Indian Ocean provide the first concurrent, multiyear time series of air-sea fluxes in the Southern...

  • Barnes J.J, McCubbin F.M, Santos A.R, Day JMD, Boyce J.W, Schwenzer S.P, Ott U., Franchi I.A, Messenger S., Anand M. et al..  2020.  Multiple early-formed water reservoirs in the interior of Mars.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mars's mantle is chemically heterogeneous and contains multiple primordial water reservoirs, according to an analysis of the hydrogen isotopic composition of minerals in Martian meteorites. The abundance and distribution of water within Mars through time plays a fundamental role in constraining its geological evolution and habitability. The isotopic composition of Martian hydrogen provides insights into the interplay between different water...

  • Shah V., Schild K., Lindeman M., Duncan D., Sutherland D., Cenedese C., Straneo F, Singh H..  2020.  Multi-sensor mapping for low contrast, quasi-dynamic, large objects. 5:470-476.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper proposes a systems level solution for addressing the problem of mapping large moving targets with slow but complicated dynamics. Our approach utilizes the complementary nature of multiple sensing modalities. While this work is applicable to other domains we focus our efforts on mapping rotating and translating icebergs. Our solution involves a rigidly coupled combination of a line scan sensor - a subsurface multibeam sonar, with an...

  • Sigrist R., Luhavaya H., McKinnie S.MK, da Silva A.F, Jurberg I.D, Moore BS, de Oliveira L.G.  2020.  Nonlinear biosynthetic assembly of alpiniamide by a hybrid cis/trans-AT PKS-NRPS. 15:1067-1077.
    Abstract Summary:

    Alpiniamide A is a linear polyketide produced by Stieptomyces endophytic bacteria. Despite its relatively simple chemical structure suggestive of a linear assembly line biosynthetic construction involving a hybrid polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase enzymatic protein machine, we report an unexpected nonlinear synthesis of this bacterial natural product. Using a combination of genomics, heterologous expression, mutagenesis,...

  • Lee H.D, Morris H.S, Laskina O., Sultana C.M, Lee C., Jayarathne T., Cox J.L, Wang X.F, Hasenecz E.S, DeMott PJ et al..  2020.  Organic enrichment, physical phase state, and surface tension depression of nascent core-shell sea spray aerosols during two phytoplankton blooms. 4:650-660.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sea spray aerosols (SSAs) affect the Earth's climate directly by scattering solar radiation and indirectly by acting as ice and cloud condensation nuclei. The relative magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, in part, from substantial compositional and morphological variability between individual particles. Here, the evolving heterogeneity within populations of primary SSAs produced from wave breaking of natural seawater within a wave...