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Recent Publications

  • Hondula DM, Balling RC, Vanos JK, Georgescu M.  2015.  Rising Temperatures, Human Health, and the Role of Adaptation. 1:144-154.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is near consensus in the scientific community that humans will experience higher future temperatures due to the ongoing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The human response to this climatic change, particularly if accompanied by a surge in extreme heat events, is a key topic being addressed by scientists across many disciplines. In this article, we review recent (2012–2015) research on human health impacts of observed...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The formerly monotypic taxon, Hyalopale bispinosa Perkins 1985 (Cluysopetalinac), is comprised of a cryptic species complex from predominantly tropical embayments and island reefs of the Western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. Hyalopale species are of meiofaunal size (length: 1-2.8mm), but considered non-interstitial, with the majority of species inhabiting a singular habitat of shallow littoral zones among algae and epifauna overlying...

  • Taylor J.RA, Scott N.I, Rouse GW.  2019.  Evolution of mantis shrimp telson armour and its role in ritualized fighting. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Mantis shrimp possess both formidable weapons and impact-resistant armour that clash during ritualized combat. The telson is one of few biological structures known to withstand the repeated high impact forces of smashing mantis shrimp strikes, and it is hypothesized that this pairing of armour and weapon is associated with the evolution of telson sparring. We carried out a comparative analysis of telson impact mechanics across 15 mantis...

  • Sierks M.D, Kalansky J., Cannon F., Ralph FM.  2020.  Characteristics, origins, and impacts of summertime extreme precipitation in the Lake Mead watershed. 33:2663-2680.
    Abstract Summary:

    The North American monsoon (NAM) is the main driver of summertime climate variability in the U.S. Southwest. Previous studies of the NAM have primarily focused on the Tier I region of the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME), spanning central-western Mexico, southern Arizona, and New Mexico. This study, however, presents a climatological characterization of summertime precipitation, defined as July-September (JAS), in the Lake Mead...

  • Jagannathan A., Winters KB, Armi L..  2020.  The effect of a strong density step on blocked stratified flow over topography. 889
    Abstract Summary:

    The dynamical connection between topographic control and wave excitation aloft is investigated theoretically and numerically in the idealized setting of two-dimensional stratified flow over an isolated ridge. We consider a constant far upstream inflow with uniform stratification except for a sharp density step located above the height of the ridge crest. Below this step, the stratification is sufficiently strong that the low level flow is...

  • Shah V., Schild K., Lindeman M., Duncan D., Sutherland D., Cenedese C., Straneo F, Singh H..  2020.  Multi-sensor mapping for low contrast, quasi-dynamic, large objects. 5:470-476.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper proposes a systems level solution for addressing the problem of mapping large moving targets with slow but complicated dynamics. Our approach utilizes the complementary nature of multiple sensing modalities. While this work is applicable to other domains we focus our efforts on mapping rotating and translating icebergs. Our solution involves a rigidly coupled combination of a line scan sensor - a subsurface multibeam sonar, with an...

  • Gibson P.B, Waliser D.E, Guan B., DeFlorio M.J, Ralph FM, Swain D.L.  2020.  Ridging associated with drought across the Western and Southwestern United States: Characteristics, trends, and predictability sources. 33:2485-2508.
    Abstract Summary:

    Persistent winter ridging events are a consistent feature of meteorological drought across the western and southwestern United States. In this study, a ridge detection algorithm is developed and applied on daily geopotential height anomalies to track and quantify the diversity of individual ridge characteristics (e.g., position, frequency, magnitude, extent, and persistence). Three dominant ridge types are shown to play important, but...

  • Chang C., Smith SGL.  2020.  Axisymmetric contour dynamics for buoyant vortex rings. 887
    Abstract Summary:

    The present work uses a reduced-order model to study the motion of a buoyant vortex ring with non-negligible core size. Buoyancy is considered in both non-Boussinesq and Boussinesq situations using an axisymmetric contour dynamics formulation. The density of the vortex ring differs from that of the ambient fluid, and both densities are constant and conserved. The motion of the ring is calculated by following the boundary of the vortex core,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The Gulf of Papua inner mid-shelf clinothem and lowstand deposits in Pandora Trough record sediment source and routing through the last sea-level cycle on 20 kyr cycles. Clay mineralogy tracked dispersal of sediment from the two types of rivers (wide versus narrow floodplains) to constrain the contributions of river systems to the Gulf of Papua clinothem and Pandora Trough deposits. Fly River sediment has higher illite:smectite than clays...

  • Dillon E.M, Lafferty K.D, McCauley D.J, Bradley D., Norris RD, Caselle JE, DiRenzo G.V, Gardner J.PA, O'Dea A..  2020.  Dermal denticle assemblages in coral reef sediments correlate with conventional shark surveys. 11:362-375.
    Abstract Summary:

    It is challenging to assess long-term trends in mobile, long-lived and relatively rare species such as sharks. Despite ongoing declines in many coastal shark populations, conventional surveys might be too fleeting and too recent to describe population trends over decades to millennia. Placing recent shark declines into historical context should improve management efforts as well as our understanding of past ecosystem dynamics. A new...

  • Abstract Summary:

    There is urgent need for effective and efficient monitoring of marine fish populations. Monitoring eggs and larval fish may be more informative than that traditional fish surveys since ichthyoplankton surveys reveal the reproductive activities of fish populations, which directly impact their population trajectories. Ichthyoplankton surveys have turned to molecular methods (DNA barcoding & metabarcoding) for identification of eggs and...

  • Abstract Summary:
  • Koehnken L., Rintoul M.S, Goichot M., Tickner D., Loftus A.C, Acreman M.C.  2020.  Impacts of riverine sand mining on freshwater ecosystems: A review of the scientific evidence and guidance for future research. 36:362-370.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sand mining (used here as a generic term that includes mining of any riverine aggregates regardless of particle size) is a global activity that is receiving increasing media attention due to perceived negative environmental and social impacts. As calls grow for stronger regulation of mining, there is a need to understand the scientific evidence to support effective management. This paper summarizes the results of a structured literature...

  • Leibel S., Nguyen M., Brick W., Parker J., Ilango S., Aguilera R., Gershunov A, Benmarhnia T..  2020.  Increase in pediatric respiratory visits associated with Santa Ana wind-driven wildfire smoke and PM2.5 levels in San Diego County. 17:313-320.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rationale: There is significant evidence of increased healthcare utilization from cardiopulmonary causes in adults from exposure to wildfire smoke, but evidence in pediatric age groups is limited. Objectives: To quantify and examine the healthcare utilization effects of the December 2017 Lilac Fire in San Diego County among pediatric patients at the Rady Children's Hospital (RCH) emergency department and urgent care (UC) clinics. Methods:...

  • Barnes JJ, McCubbin FM, Santos AR, Day JMD, Boyce JW, Schwenzer SP, Ott U, Franchi IA, Messenger S, Anand M et al..  2020.  Multiple early-formed water reservoirs in the interior of Mars.
    Abstract Summary:

    The abundance and distribution of water within Mars through time plays a fundamental role in constraining its geological evolution and habitability. The isotopic composition of Martian hydrogen provides insights into the interplay between different water reservoirs on Mars. However, D/H (deuterium/hydrogen) ratios of Martian rocks and of the Martian atmosphere span a wide range of values. This has complicated identification of distinct water...

  • Sibert E.C, Zill M.E, Frigyik E.T, Norris RD.  2020.  No state change in pelagic fish production and biodiversity during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. 13:238-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) boundary (~33.9 million years ago) has been described as a state change in the Earth system marked by the permanent glaciation of Antarctica and a proposed increase in oceanic productivity. Here we quantified the response of fish production and biodiversity to this event using microfossil fish teeth (ichthyoliths) in seven deep-sea sediment cores from around the world. Ichthyolith accumulation rate (a proxy for fish...

  • Carvalho F., Fitzsimmons J.N, Couto N., Waite N., Gorbunov M., Kohut J., Oliver M.J, Sherrell R.M, Schofield O..  2020.  Testing the Canyon Hypothesis: Evaluating light and nutrient controls of phytoplankton growth in penguin foraging hotspots along the West Antarctic Peninsula. 65:455-470.
    Abstract Summary:

    Biological hotspots along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are characterized by high phytoplankton productivity and biomass as well as spatially focused penguin foraging activity. While unique physical concentrating processes were identified in one of these hotspots, understanding the mechanisms driving the blooms at these locations is of high importance. Factors posited to explain the blooms include the upwelling of macronutrient- and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We present the thermochemical evolution of a downward crystallizing basal magma ocean (BMO) overlying the liquid outer core and probe its capability to dissipate enough power to generate and sustain an early dynamo. A total of 61 out of 112 scenarios for a BMO with imposed, present-day heat flux, Q(BMO). values of 15, 18, and 21 TW and radiogenic heat, Q(r), values of 4, 8, and 12 TW fully crystallized during the age of the Earth. Most of...

  • Porreca M., Fabbrizzi A., Azzaro S., Pucci S., Del Rio L., Pierantoni P.P, Giorgetti C., Roberts G., Barchi M.R.  2020.  3D geological reconstruction of the M. Vettore seismogenic fault system (Central Apennines, Italy): Cross-cutting relationship with the M. Sibillini thrust. 131
    Abstract Summary:

    The 2016-2017 Amatrice-Norcia seismic sequence was triggered by the reactivation of a complex NNW-SSE trending, WSW-dipping normal fault system cross-cutting the Umbria-Marche fold and thrust belt near M. Vettore. This fault system produced clear and impressive co-seismic ruptures on normal faults in the hangingwall of the M. Sibillini thrust, whereas ruptures in the footwall were observed, but less clear. As a result, a strong controversy...

  • Hell M.C, Schneider T., Li C..  2020.  Atmospheric circulation response to short-term Arctic warming in an idealized model. 77:531-549.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent Arctic sea ice loss in fall has been posited to drive midlatitude circulation changes into winter and even spring. Past work has shown that sea ice loss can indeed trigger a weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex, which can lead to delayed surface weather changes. But the mechanisms of such changes and their relevant time scales have remained unclear. This study uses large ensembles of idealized GCM simulations to identify how and...

  • Stone R.E, Reynolds C.A, Doyle J.D, Langland R.H, Baker N.L, Lavers D.A, Ralph FM.  2020.  Atmospheric river reconnaissance observation impact in the Navy global forecast system. 148:763-782.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers, often associated with impactful weather along the west coast of North America, can be a challenge to forecast even on short time scales. This is attributed, at least in part, to the scarcity of eastern Pacific in situ observations. We examine the impact of assimilating dropsonde observations collected during the Atmospheric River (AR) Reconnaissance 2018 field program on the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM)...

  • Yao Y., Zhang Q.M, Becker J.M, Merrifield M.A.  2020.  Boussinesq modeling of wave processes in field fringing reef environments. 95
    Abstract Summary:

    Boussinesq modeling of wave transformation over coral reefs to date focuses mainly on wave dynamics at the laboratory scale using idealized fringing reef profiles with relatively smooth surfaces. To better understand the cross-shore wave dynamics associated with coastal wave run-up in field studies of fringing reefs, a numerical study based on the one-dimensional horizontal (1DH) weakly dispersive, highly nonlinear Boussinesq equations is...

  • Demirdjian R., Doyle J.D, Reynolds C.A, Norris J.R, Michaelis A.C, Ralph FM.  2020.  A case study of the physical processes associated with the atmospheric river initial-condition sensitivity from an adjoint model. 77:691-709.
    Abstract Summary:

    Analysis of a strong landfalling atmospheric river is presented that compares the evolution of a control simulation with that of an adjoint-derived perturbed simulation using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System. The initial-condition sensitivities are optimized for all state variables to maximize the accumulated precipitation within the majority of California. The water vapor transport is found to be substantially...

  • Polonik P., Knote C., Zinner T., Ewald F., Kolling T., Mayer B., Andreae M.O, Jurkat-Witschas T., Klimach T., Mahnke C. et al..  2020.  The challenge of simulating the sensitivity of the Amazonian cloud microstructure to cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations. 20:1591-1605.
    Abstract Summary:

    The realistic representation of aerosol-cloud interactions is of primary importance for accurate climate model projections. The investigation of these interactions in strongly contrasting clean and polluted atmospheric conditions in the Amazon region has been one of the motivations for several field campaigns, including the airborne "Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems-Cloud...

  • Morato T., Gonzalez-Irusta J.M, Dominguez-Carrio C., Wei C.L, Davies A., Sweetman A.K, Taranto G.H, Beazley L., Garcia-Alegre A., Grehan A. et al..  2020.  Climate-induced changes in the suitable habitat of cold-water corals and commercially important deep-sea fishes in the North Atlantic.
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep sea plays a critical role in global climate regulation through uptake and storage of heat and carbon dioxide. However, this regulating service causes warming, acidification and deoxygenation of deep waters, leading to decreased food availability at the seafloor. These changes and their projections are likely to affect productivity, biodiversity and distributions of deep-sea fauna, thereby compromising key ecosystem services....

  • Ponnudurai R., Heiden S.E, Sayavedra L., Hinzke T., Kleiner M., Hentschker C., Felbeck H., Sievert S.M, Schluter R., Becher D. et al..  2020.  Comparative proteomics of related symbiotic mussel species reveals high variability of host-symbiont interactions. 14:649-656.
    Abstract Summary:

    Deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their chemoautotrophic symbionts are well-studied representatives of mutualistic host-microbe associations. However, how host-symbiont interactions vary on the molecular level between related host and symbiont species remains unclear. Therefore, we compared the host and symbiont metaproteomes of Pacific B. thermophilus, hosting a thiotrophic symbiont, and Atlantic B. azoricus, containing two symbionts, a...

  • Mei F., Wang J., Comstock J.M, Weigel R., Kramer M., Mahnke C., Shilling JE, Schneider J., Schulz C., Long C.N et al..  2020.  Comparison of aircraft measurements during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA. 13:661-684.
    Abstract Summary:

    The indirect effect of atmospheric aerosol particles on the Earth's radiation balance remains one of the most uncertain components affecting climate change throughout the industrial period. The large uncertainty is partly due to the incomplete understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions. One objective of the GoAmazon2014/5 and the ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems)...

  • Hu S.J, Sprintall J, Guan C., McPhaden MJ, Wang F., Hu D.X, Cai W.J.  2020.  Deep-reaching acceleration of global mean ocean circulation over the past two decades. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean circulation redistributes Earth's energy and water masses and influences global climate. Under historical greenhouse warming, regional ocean currents show diverse tendencies, but whether there is an emerging trend of the global mean ocean circulation system is not yet clear. Here, we show a statistically significant increasing trend in the globally integrated oceanic kinetic energy since the early 1990s, indicating a substantial...

  • Su W.Y, Minnis P, Liang L.S, Duda D.P, Khlopenkov K.V, Thieman M.M, Yu Y.N, Smith A., Lorentz S.R, Feldman D. et al..  2020.  Determining the daytime Earth radiative flux from National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) measurements. 13:429-443.
    Abstract Summary:

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provides continuous full-disk global broadband irradiance measurements over most of the sunlit side of the Earth. The three active cavity radiometers measure the total radiant energy from the sunlit side of the Earth in shortwave (SW; 0.2-4 mu m), total (0.4-100 mu m), and near-infrared (NIR; 0.7-4 mu m) channels...

  • Danovaro R., Fanelli E., Aguzzi J., Billett D., Carugati L., Corinaldesi C., Dell'Anno A., Gjerde K., Jamieson A.J, Kark S. et al..  2020.  Ecological variables for developing a global deep-ocean monitoring and conservation strategy. 4:181-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Expert elicitation methods identify a set of essential ecological variables that may be used to guide effective conservation and management of the deep sea. The deep sea (>200 m depth) encompasses >95% of the world's ocean volume and represents the largest and least explored biome on Earth (<0.0001% of ocean surface), yet is increasingly under threat from multiple direct and indirect anthropogenic pressures. Our ability to preserve...

  • Parish G.R, Rowbotham I., Mendoza N.E, Norton A.G, Klinger D.H, Dale J.D, Hopkins K.D, Garcia-Ortega A., Block B.A, Farwell C. et al..  2020.  Energetic savings when switching from a whole-fish type diet to a commercial pelleted diet in California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis). 516
    Abstract Summary:

    Feed is one of the largest costs in most aquaculture operations, and as such, aquaculturists are continually striving to improve on ingredient sourcing and formulations to increase growth and performance while reducing costs. Analysis of the energy expended in digestion of different feeds can be a valuable early indicator of the suitability of a new ingredient or formulation. We use respirometry, an activity level analysis, and proximate...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Field-based cultivation of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma seaweeds is widespread across the tropics and is largely done to extract the polysaccharide carrageenan, which is used in commercial applications. Although such seaweed farming has been cited as a sustainable alternative livelihood to destructive fishing, there has not been a comprehensive review of its environmental impacts to assess its potential conservation benefit. We reviewed the peer-...

  • Lundesgaard O., Winsor P., Truffer M., Merrifield M., Powell B., Statscewich H., Eidam E., Smith C.R.  2020.  Hydrography and energetics of a cold subpolar fjord: Andvord Bay, western Antarctic Peninsula. 181
    Abstract Summary:

    Fjords along the western Antarctic Peninsula contain rich marine ecosystems and tidewater glaciers potentially sensitive to ocean change, but much is unknown about the physical oceanography of these fjords. This paper presents a comprehensive description of the physical environment of Andvord Bay, a glacial fjord located in the Gerlache Strait on the northern end of the Peninsula. Measurements were collected as part of the FjordEco program...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The double-ITCZ bias has puzzled the climate modeling community for more than two decades. Here we show that, over the northeastern Pacific Ocean, precipitation and sea surface temperature (SST) biases are seasonally dependent in the NCAR CESM1 and 37 CMIP5 models, with positive biases during boreal summer-autumn and negative biases during boreal winter-spring, although the easterly wind bias persists year round. This seasonally dependent...

  • Kennel C.F, Yulaeva E..  2020.  Influence of Arctic sea-ice variability on Pacific trade winds. 117:2824-2834.
    Abstract Summary:

    A conceptual model connecting seasonal loss of Arctic sea ice to midlatitude extreme weather events is applied to the 21st-century intensification of Central Pacific trade winds, emergence of Central Pacific El Nino events, and weakening of the North Pacific Aleutian Low Circulation. According to the model, Arctic Ocean warming following the summer sea-ice melt drives vertical convection that perturbs the upper troposphere. Static stability...

  • Krause J.W, Brzezinski M.A, Largier J.L, McNair H.M, Maniscalco M., Bidle K.D, Allen A.E, Thamatrakoln K..  2020.  The interaction of physical and biological factors drives phytoplankton spatial distribution in the northern California Current.
    Abstract Summary:

    Transitions in phytoplankton community composition are typically attributed to ecological succession even in physically dynamic upwelling systems like the California Current Ecosystem (CCE). An expected succession from a high-chlorophyll (similar to 10 mu g L-1) diatom-dominated assemblage to a low-chlorophyll (< 1.0 mu g L-1) non-diatom dominated assemblage was observed during a 2013 summer upwelling event in the CCE. Using an...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Isotopic compositions of reservoirs in the Moon can be constrained from analysis of rocks generated during lunar magmatic differentiation. Mare basalts sample the largest lunar mantle volume, from olivine- and pyroxene-rich cumulates, whereas ferroan anorthosites and magnesian-suite rocks represent early crustal materials. Incompatible element enriched rocks, known as 'KREEP,' probably preserve evidence for the last highly differentiated...

  • Fryer P., Wheat C.G, Williams T., Kelley C., Johnson K., Ryan J., Kurz W., Shervais J., Albers E., Bekins B. et al..  2020.  Mariana serpentinite mud volcanism exhumes subducted seamount materials: implications for the origin of life. 378
    Abstract Summary:

    The subduction of seamounts and ridge features at convergent plate boundaries plays an important role in the deformation of the overriding plate and influences geochemical cycling and associated biological processes. Active serpentinization of forearc mantle and serpentinite mud volcanism on the Mariana forearc (between the trench and active volcanic arc) provides windows on subduction processes. Here, we present (1) the first observation of...

  • Sepúlveda I, Haase JS, Carvajal M, Xu X, Liu PL-F.  2020.  Modeling the sources of the 2018 Palu, Indonesia, tsunami using videos from social media. :e2019JB018675.
    Abstract Summary:

    The 2018 Palu tsunami contributed significantly to the devastation caused by the associated Mw 7.5 earthquake. This began a debate about how the moderate size earthquake triggered such a large tsunami within Palu Bay, with runups of more than 10 m. The possibility of a large component of vertical coseismic deformation and submarine landslides have been considered as potential explanations. However, scarce instrumental data has made it...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Marine sponge holobionts, defined as filter-feeding sponge hosts together with their associated microbiomes, are prolific sources of natural products. The inventory of natural products that have been isolated from marine sponges is extensive. Here, using untargeted mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that sponges harbor a far greater diversity of low-abundance natural products that have evaded discovery. While these low-abundance natural...

  • Bhatla R., Verma S., Ghosh S., Mall R.K.  2020.  Performance of regional climate model in simulating Indian summer monsoon over Indian homogeneous region. 139:1121-1135.
    Abstract Summary:

    The performance and validation of regional climate model (RegCM-4.3) simulation of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) have been conducted with a futuristic view of climate change study with the convective parameterization schemes (CPSs) over the different homogeneous regions of India. The dynamical downscaling of RegCM-4.3 has been done over South Asian Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) domain with the lateral...

  • Pezner A.K, Pivovaroff A.L, Sun W., Sharifi M.R, Rundel P.W, Seibt U..  2020.  Plant functional traits predict the drought response of native California plant species. 181:256-265.
    Abstract Summary:

    Premise of research. As extreme climate events, such as California's 2012-2016 drought, become more frequent with climate change, it is imperative to understand how different native plant communities respond to drought-induced dehydration stress. Chaparral and California sage scrub (CSS), two widespread plant communities in California, face threats from droughts of increased frequency and severity. Despite chaparral and CSS plants being...

  • Trehu A.M, de Moor A., Madrid J.M, Saez M., Chadwell C.D, Ortega-Culaciati F., Ruiz J., Ruiz S., Tryon M.D.  2020.  Post-seismic response of the outer accretionary prism after the 2010 Maule earthquake, Chile. 16:13-32.
    Abstract Summary:

    To investigate the dynamic response of the outer accretionary prism up-dip from the patch of greatest slip during the 2010 M-w 8.8 Maule earthquake (Chile), 10 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed from May 2012 to March 2013 in a small network with an inter-instrument spacing of 710 km. Nine were recovered, with four recording data from intermediate-band three-component seismometers and differential pressure gauges, and five...

  • Atamanchuk D., Koelling J., Send U, Wallace D.WR.  2020.  Rapid transfer of oxygen to the deep ocean mediated by bubbles.
    Abstract Summary:

    Bubble-mediated flux of oxygen into the Labrador Sea surface ocean contributes to air-sea gas exchange, suggest observations from moored profiling and Argo float data. Climate models that omit the process may underestimate oxygen in the deep ocean. The concentration of oxygen exerts major controls on life in the ocean, and its distribution in the ocean and atmosphere carries information about biological productivity, transports of mass and...

  • Resetarits E.J, Torchin M.E, Hechinger R.F.  2020.  Social trematode parasites increase standing army size in areas of greater invasion threat. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Organisms or societies are resource limited, causing important trade-offs between reproduction and defence. Given such trade-offs, optimal allocation theory predicts that, for animal societies with a soldier caste, allocation to soldiers should reflect local external threats. Although both threat intensity and soldier allocation can vary widely in nature, we currently lack strong evidence that spatial variation in threat can drive the...

  • Ryoo J.M, Chiao S., Spackman J.R, Iraci L.T, Ralph FM, Martin A., Dole R.M, Marrero J.E, Yates E.L, Bui T.P et al..  2020.  Terrain trapped airflows and precipitation variability during an atmospheric river event. 21:355-375.
    Abstract Summary:

    We examine thermodynamic and kinematic structures of terrain trapped airflows (TTAs) during an atmospheric river (AR) event impacting Northern California 10-11 March 2016 using Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) aircraft data, in situ observations, and Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) Model simulations. TTAs are identified by locally intensified low-level winds flowing parallel to the coastal ranges and having maxima over the near-...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We generate and tabulate reflectance values of the Stokes parameters I, Q and U of upwelling radiance just above a rough ocean surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) for 100 scattering geometries, four atmosphere-ocean systems, and four wavelengths. The atmosphere-ocean systems increase in complexity from (a) a molecular atmosphere above a rough ocean surface (AOS-I model); to (b) a pure water body below a rough ocean surface (AOS-II...

  • Hutchings N., Kilpatrick T., Long D.G.  2020.  Ultrahigh resolution scatterometer winds near Hawaii. 12
    Abstract Summary:

    Hawaii regional climate model (HRCM), QuikSCAT, and ASCAT wind estimates are compared in the lee of Hawaii's Big Island with the goal of understanding ultrahigh resolution (UHR) scatterometer wind retrieval capabilities in this area, which includes a reverse-flow toward the island in the lee of the predominate flow. A comparison of scatterometer measured sigma 0 and model predicted sigma 0 suggests that scatterometers can detect the reverse...

  • Geyer F., Sagen H., Cornuelle B., Mazloff MR, Vazquez H.J.  2020.  Using a regional ocean model to understand the structure and variability of acoustic arrivals in Fram Strait. 147:1042-1053.
    Abstract Summary:

    A regional ocean model for Fram Strait provides a framework for interpretation of the variability and structure of acoustic tomography arrivals. The eddy-permitting model (52 vertical levels and 4.5 km horizontal resolution) was evaluated using long-term moored hydrography data and time series of depth-range averaged temperature obtained from the inversion of acoustic tomography measurements. Geometric ray modeling using the ocean model...

  • Lobs N., Barbosa C.GG, Brill S., Walter D., Ditas F., Sa M.D, de Araujo A.C, de Oliveira L.R, Godoi R.HM, Wolff S. et al..  2020.  Aerosol measurement methods to quantify spore emissions from fungi and cryptogamic covers in the Amazon. 13:153-164.
    Abstract Summary:

    Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties, and spatiotemporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. In the Amazon Basin, primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) account for a large fraction of coarse particulate matter, and fungal spores are among the most abundant PBAPs in this area as well as in other vegetated continental regions. Furthermore,...