Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

50 years of scientific ocean drilling

Impact:
Here, we briefly review the history, impacts, and scientific achievements of five decades of coordinated scientific ocean drilling.

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  • Hondula DM, Balling RC, Vanos JK, Georgescu M.  2015.  Rising Temperatures, Human Health, and the Role of Adaptation. 1:144-154.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is near consensus in the scientific community that humans will experience higher future temperatures due to the ongoing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The human response to this climatic change, particularly if accompanied by a surge in extreme heat events, is a key topic being addressed by scientists across many disciplines. In this article, we review recent (2012–2015) research on human health impacts of observed...

  • Velasco-Hogan A, Deheyn DD, Koch M, Nothdurft B, Arzt E, Meyers MA.  2019.  On the nature of the transparent teeth of the deep-sea dragonfish, Aristostomias scintillans.
    Abstract Summary:

    The dragonfish is a voracious predator of the deep sea with an arsenal of tools to hunt prey and remain concealed. In contrast to its dark pigmented skin, the dragonfish is equipped with transparent teeth. Here, we establish the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of the transparent teeth for the first time. We find the enamel-like layer to consist of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite domains (?20 nm grain size) embedded in an...

  • Nannuru S., Gemba K.L, Gerstoft P, Hodgkiss WS, Mecklenbrauker C.F.  2019.  Sparse Bayesian learning with multiple dictionaries. Signal Processing. 159:159-170.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has emerged as a fast and competitive method to perform sparse processing. The SBL algorithm, which is developed using a Bayesian framework, iteratively solves a non-convex optimization problem using fixed point updates. It provides comparable performance and is significantly faster than convex optimization techniques used in sparse processing. We propose a multi-dictionary SBL algorithm that simultaneously can...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The present article describes a numerical modeling study of the spatial distribution of the wave energy resource for Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands (USVI). The study consists of an analysis of three years of output from the CARICOOS Nearshore Wave Model, an operational model based on the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Using the wave model output, the wave power was computed and then averaged for a three year period...

  • Eddebbar Y.A, Rodgers K.B, Long M.C, Subramanian AC, Xie SP, Keeling RF.  2019.  El Nino-like physical and biogeochemical ocean response to tropical eruptions. Journal of Climate. 32:2627-2649.
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceanic response to recent tropical eruptions is examined in Large Ensemble (LE) experiments from two fully coupled global climate models, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (ESM2M), each forced by a distinct volcanic forcing dataset. Following the simulated eruptions of Agung, El Chichon, and Pinatubo, the ocean loses heat and gains oxygen and carbon, in general...

  • White-Gaynor A.L, Nyblade A.A, Aster R.C, Wiens D.A, Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Hansen S.E, Wilson T., Dalziel I.W et al..  2019.  Heterogeneous upper mantle structure beneath the Ross Sea Embayment and Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, revealed by P-wave tomography. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 513:40-50.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present an upper mantle P-wave velocity model for the Ross Sea Embayment (RSE) region of West Antarctica, constructed by inverting relative P-wave travel-times from 1881 teleseismic earthquakes recorded by two temporary broadband seismograph deployments on the Ross Ice Shelf, as well as by regional ice- and rock-sited seismic stations surrounding the RSE. Faster upper mantle P-wave velocities (similar to +1%) characterize the eastern part...

  • DeSanto J.B, Chadwell C.D, Sandwell DT.  2019.  Kinematic post-processing of ship navigation data using precise point positioning. 72:795-804.
    Abstract Summary:

    Seafloor geodetic studies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-Acoustic experiments often require the measurement platform on the sea surface to be positioned accurately to within a few centimetres. In this paper, we test the utility of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) for this application with two experiments. The first fixed platform experiment is a comparison between three independent processing software packages: Positioning and...

  • Ramirez-Reyes C., Brauman K.A, Chaplin-Kramer R., Galford G.L, Adamo S.B, Anderson C.B, Anderson C., Allington G.RH, Bagstad K.J, Coe M.T et al..  2019.  Reimagining the potential of Earth observations for ecosystem service assessments. Science of the Total Environment. 665:1053-1063.
    Abstract Summary:

    The benefits nature provides to people, called ecosystem services, are increasingly recognized and accounted for in assessments of infrastructure development, agricultural management, conservation prioritization, and sustainable sourcing. These assessments are often limited by data, however, a gap with tremendous potential to be filled through Earth observations (EO), which produce a variety of data across spatial and temporal extents and...

  • Matusik K.E, Smith SGL.  2019.  The response of surface buoyancy flux-driven convection to localized mechanical forcing. Experiments in Fluids. 60
    Abstract Summary:

    We present laboratory experiments in which both a buoyancy and mechanical forcing are imposed on the surface of a rectangular tank filled with freshwater. The buoyancy forcing is generated by a saltwater source at the surface that drives a sinking half-line plume along one endwall, and the mechanical forcing is generated by a continuous flow of freshwater across the surface of the tank. A steady-state circulation is achieved when the...

  • Tayler N.M, Boya C.A, Herrera L., Moy J., Ng M., Pineda L., Almanza A., Rosero S., Coronado L.M, Correa R. et al..  2019.  Analysis of the antiparasitic and anticancer activity of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L. ARECACEAE) from the natural reserve of Punta Patino, Darien. Plos One. 14
    Abstract Summary:

    Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) (the coconut palm tree) has been traditionally used to fight a number of human diseases, but only a few studies have tested its components against parasites such as those that cause malaria. In this study, C. nucifera samples were collected from a private natural reserve in Punta Patino, Darien, Panama. The husk, leaves, pulp, and milk of C. nucifera were extracted and evaluated against the parasites that cause...

  • Martinez-Ruiz F., Paytam A., Gonzalez-Munoz M.T, Jroundi F., Abad M.M, Lam P.J, Bishop J.KB, Horner T.J, Morton P.L, Kastner M..  2019.  Barite formation in the ocean: Origin of amorphous and crystalline precipitates. Chemical Geology. 511:441-451.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean export production is a key constituent in the global carbon cycle impacting climate. Past ocean export production is commonly estimated by means of barite and Barium proxies. However, the precise mechanisms underlying barite precipitation in the undersaturated marine water column are not fully understood. Here we present a detailed mineralogical and crystallographic analysis of barite from size-fractionated particulate material...

  • Sielaff A.C, Urbaniak C., Mohan G.BM, Stepanov V.G, Tran Q., Wood J.M, Minich J., McDonald D., Mayer T., Knight R. et al..  2019.  Characterization of the total and viable bacterial and fungal communities associated with the International Space Station surfaces. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    BackgroundThe International Space Station (ISS) is a closed system inhabited by microorganisms originating from life support systems, cargo, and crew that are exposed to unique selective pressures such as microgravity. To date, mandatory microbial monitoring and observational studies of spacecraft and space stations have been conducted by traditional culture methods, although it is known that many microbes cannot be cultured with standard...

  • Jenkins W.J, Doney SC, Fendrock M., Fine R., Gamo T., Jean-Baptiste P., Key R., Klein B., Lupton J.E, Newton R. et al..  2019.  A comprehensive global oceanic dataset of helium isotope and tritium measurements. Earth System Science Data. 11:441-454.
    Abstract Summary:

    Tritium and helium isotope data provide key information on ocean circulation, ventilation, and mixing, as well as the rates of biogeochemical processes and deep-ocean hydrothermal processes. We present here global oceanic datasets of tritium and helium isotope measurements made by numerous researchers and laboratories over a period exceeding 60 years. The dataset's DOI is https://doi.org/10.25921/...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have been found to influence the amount, phase and efficiency of precipitation from winter storms, including atmospheric rivers. Warm INPs, those that initiate freezing at temperatures warmer than -10 degrees C, are thought to be particularly impactful because they can create primary ice in mixed-phase clouds, enhancing precipitation efficiency. The dominant sources of warm INPs during atmospheric rivers, the...

  • Johnson L.E, Kingsbury J.S, Elder D.L, Cattolico R.A, Latimer L.N, Hardin W., De Meulenaere E., Deodato C., Depotter G., Madabushi S. et al..  2019.  DANPY (dimethylaminonaphthylpyridinium): an economical and biocompatible fluorophore. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 17:3765-3780.
    Abstract Summary:

    Dyes with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties enable new imaging techniques and photonic systems. We have developed a dye (DANPY-1) for photonics applications in biological substrates such as nucleic acids; however, the design specification also enables it to be used for visualizing biomolecules. It is a prototype dye demonstrating a water-soluble, NLO-active fluorophore with high photostability, a large Stokes shift, and a favorable toxicity...

  • Tamsitt V., Talley LD, Mazloff MR.  2019.  A deep eastern boundary current carrying Indian deep water south of Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 124:2218-2238.
    Abstract Summary:

    In the Southern Hemisphere, the ocean's deep waters are predominantly transported from low to high latitudes via boundary currents. In addition to the Deep Western Boundary Currents, pathways along the eastern boundaries of the southern Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific transport deep water poleward into the Southern Ocean where these waters upwell to the sea surface. These deep eastern boundary currents and their physical drivers are not well...

  • Tuttle R.N, Demko A.M, Patin NV, Kapono C.A, Donia M.S, Dorrestein P., Jensen PR.  2019.  Detection of natural products and their producers in ocean sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 85
    Abstract Summary:

    Thousands of natural products have been identified from cultured microorganisms, yet evidence of their production in the environment has proven elusive. Technological advances in mass spectrometry, combined with public data-bases, now make it possible to address this disparity by detecting compounds directly from environmental samples. Here, we used adsorbent resins, tandem mass spectrometry, and next-generation sequencing to assess the...

  • Kelly LW, Nelson CE, Haas AF, Naliboff D.S, Calhoun S., Carlson CA, Edwards R.A, Fox M.D, Hatay M., Johnson M.D et al..  2019.  Diel population and functional synchrony of microbial communities on coral reefs. Nature Communications. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    On coral reefs, microorganisms are essential for recycling nutrients to primary producers through the remineralization of benthic-derived organic matter. Diel investigations of reef processes are required to holistically understand the functional roles of microbial players in these ecosystems. Here we report a metagenomic analysis characterizing microbial communities in the water column overlying 16 remote forereef sites over a diel cycle....

  • Cerovecki I, Meijers A.JS, Mazloff MR, Gille ST, Tamsitt V.M, Holland P.R.  2019.  The effects of enhanced sea ice export from the Ross Sea on recent cooling and freshening of the Southeast Pacific. Journal of Climate. 32:2013-2035.
    Abstract Summary:

    The top 2000 m of the Southern Ocean has freshened and warmed over recent decades. However, the high-latitude (south of 50 degrees S) southeast Pacific was observed to be cooler and fresher in the years 2008-10 compared to 2005-07 over a wide depth range including surface, mode, and intermediate waters. The causes and impacts of this event are analyzed using the ocean-sea ice data-assimilating Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) and...

  • Lelieveld J., Klingmuller K., Pozzer A., Burnett R.T, Haines A., Ramanathan V.  2019.  Effects of fossil fuel and total anthropogenic emission removal on public health and climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116:7192-7197.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols are associated with climate change and human health risks. We used a global model to estimate the climate and public health outcomes attributable to fossil fuel use, indicating the potential benefits of a phaseout. We show that it can avoid an excess mortality rate of 3.61 (2.96-4.21) million per year from outdoor air pollution worldwide. This could be up to 5.55 (4.52-6.52) million per year by...

  • Day JMD, Corder CA, Assayag N, Cartigny P.  2019.  Ferrous oxide-rich asteroid achondrites. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ferrous oxide (FeO)-rich asteroid achondrites can be defined as asteroid-derived samples that experienced incipient partial melting processes in the early Solar System (>4.5 Ga) leading to melt-residues and cumulate and melt rocks that have high FeO in silicate grains (molar Mg/[Mg + Fe] < 80), implying relatively oxidative conditions (fO2 of IW +1 to +3). These achondrites include olivine-dominated brachinite and brachinite-like...

  • Barry PH, de Moor JM, Giovannelli D., Schrenk M., Hummer D.R, Lopez T., Pratt C.A, Segura Y.A, Battaglia A., Beaudry P. et al..  2019.  Forearc carbon sink reduces long-term volatile recycling into the mantle. Nature. 568:487-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Carbon and other volatiles in the form of gases, fluids or mineral phases are transported from Earth's surface into the mantle at convergent margins, where the oceanic crust subducts beneath the continental crust. The efficiency of this transfer has profound implications for the nature and scale of geochemical heterogeneities in Earth's deep mantle and shallow crustal reservoirs, as well as Earth's oxidation state. However, the proportions of...

  • Biedermann A.R, Bilardella D., Jackson M., Tauxe L, Feinberg JM.  2019.  Grain-size-dependent remanence anisotropy and its implications for paleodirections and paleointensities - Proposing a new approach to anisotropy corrections. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 512:111-123.
    Abstract Summary:

    Paleomagnetic data provide information on the evolution of the Earth's magnetic field, and are used to reconstruct plate motions. One fundamental assumption underlying these interpretations is that the magnetization of a rock reliably records the direction and intensity of the magnetizing field, i.e. that the magnetization is parallel to the field direction, and the intensity of magnetization is proportional to the field strength. Preferred...

  • Gutierrez-Rodriguez A., Stukel M.R, Santos A.L dos, Biard T., Scharek R., Vaulot D., Landry MR, Not F..  2019.  High contribution of Rhizaria (Radiolaria) to vertical export in the California Current Ecosystem revealed by DNA metabarcoding. Isme Journal. 13:964-976.
    Abstract Summary:

    Passive sinking of particulate organic matter (POM) is the main mechanism through which the biological pump transports surface primary production to the ocean interior. However, the contribution and variability of different biological sources to vertical export is not fully understood. Here, we use DNA metabarcoding of the 18S rRNA gene and particle interceptor traps (PITs) to characterize the taxonomic composition of particles sinking out of...

  • Chyderiotis S., Beck F., Andler R., Hitchman S.C, Benmarhnia T..  2019.  How to reduce biases coming from a before and after design: the impact of the 2007-08 French smoking ban policy. 29:372-377.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Smoke-free laws aim at protecting against second-hand smoke and at contributing to change smoking behaviors. Impact evaluation studies can help understand to what extent they reach their goals. Simple before and after designs are often used but cannot isolate the effect of the policy of interest. Methods: The short-term impact of the French smoking ban (2007-08) on smoking behavior outcomes was evaluated among smokers with data...

  • Green H., Bailey J., Schwarz L., Vanos J., Ebi K., Benmarhnia T..  2019.  Impact of heat on mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries: A review of the epidemiological evidence and considerations for future research. Environmental Research. 171:80-91.
    Abstract Summary:

    Heat waves and high air temperature are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the majority of research conducted on this topic is focused on high income areas of the world. Although heat waves have the most severe impacts on vulnerable populations, relatively few studies have studied their impacts in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The aim of this paper is to review the existing evidence in the literature on the...

  • Spydell M.S, Feddersen F, Suanda S..  2019.  Inhomogeneous turbulent dispersion across the nearshore induced by surfzone eddies. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 49:1015-1034.
    Abstract Summary:

    In various oceanic regions, drifter-derived diffusivities reach a temporal maximum and subsequently decrease. Often, these are regions of inhomogeneous eddies, however, the effect of inhomogeneous turbulence on dispersion is poorly understood. The nearshore region (spanning from the surfzone to the inner shelf) also has strong cross-shore inhomogeneous turbulence. Nearshore Lagrangian statistics are estimated from drifter trajectories...

  • Inglis E.C, Moynier F., Creech J., Deng Z.B, Day JMD, Teng F.Z, Bizzarro M., Jackson M., Savage P..  2019.  Isotopic fractionation of zirconium during magmatic differentiation and the stable isotope composition of the silicate Earth. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 250:311-323.
    Abstract Summary:

    High-precision double-spike Zr stable isotope measurements (expressed as delta Zr-94/90(IPGP-Zr), the permil deviation of the Zr-94/Zr-90 ratio from the IPGP-Zr standard) are presented for a range of ocean island basalts (OIB) and mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) to examine mass-dependent isotopic variations of zirconium in Earth. Ocean island basalt samples, spanning a range of radiogenic isotopic flavours (HIMU, EM) show a limited range in...

  • Pizzo N., Melville W.K, Deike L..  2019.  Lagrangian transport by nonbreaking and breaking deep-water waves at the ocean surface. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 49:983-992.
    Abstract Summary:

    Using direct numerical simulations (DNS), Deike et al. found that the wave-breaking-induced mass transport, or drift, at the surface for a single breaking wave scales linearly with the slope of a focusing wave packet, and may be up to an order of magnitude larger than the prediction of the classical Stokes drift. This model for the drift due to an individual breaking wave, together with the statistics of wave breaking measured in the field,...

  • Allemann M.N, Shulse C.N, Allen EE.  2019.  Linkage of marine bacteria polyunsaturated fatty acid and long-chain hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Frontiers in Microbiology. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Vaious marine gamma-proteobacteria produce omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, DHA), which are incorporated into membrane phospholipids. Five genes, designated pfaABCDE, encode the polyketide/fatty acid synthase necessary for production of these long-chain fatty acids. In addition to de novo biosynthesis of EPA and DHA, the "Pfa synthase" is also involved with...

  • Allemann MN, Shulse CN, Allen EE.  2019.  Linkage of marine bacterial polyunsaturated fatty acid and long-chain hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Frontiers in Microbiology. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Various marine gamma-proteobacteria produce omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, DHA), which are incorporated into membrane phospholipids. Five genes, designated pfaABCDE, encode the polyketide/fatty acid synthase necessary for production of these long-chain fatty acids. In addition to de novo biosynthesis of EPA and DHA, the “Pfa synthase” is also involved with...

  • Lax S., Cardona C., Zhao D, Winton V.J, Goodney G., Gao P., Gottel N., Hartmann E.M, Henry C., Thomas P.M et al..  2019.  Microbial and metabolic succession on common building materials under high humidity conditions. Nature Communications. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite considerable efforts to characterize the microbial ecology of the built environment, the metabolic mechanisms underpinning microbial colonization and successional dynamics remain unclear, particularly at high moisture conditions. Here, we applied bacterial/viral particle counting, qPCR, amplicon sequencing of the genes encoding 16S and ITS rRNA, and metabolomics to longitudinally characterize the ecological dynamics of four common...

  • Frable B.W, Tucker S.J, Walker H.J.  2019.  A new species of grouper, Epinephelus craigi (Perciformes: Epinephelidae), from the South China Sea. Ichthyological Research. 66:215-224.
    Abstract Summary:

    A new species of grouper, Epinephelus craigi. sp. nov., from the South China Sea is described from 17 specimens (104-250mm SL). The new species is distinguished from Epinephelus stictus (Randall and Allen 1987) with which it has historically been conflated, based on coloration, meristics, morphology, and genetics. Epinephelus craigi sp. nov. has a unique color pattern of irregular squarish, dark brown blotches interrupting lighter brown bars...

  • Rankin A., Seo K., Graeve O.A, Taylor J.RA.  2019.  No compromise between metabolism and behavior of decorator crabs in reduced pH conditions. Scientific Reports. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Many marine calcifiers experience metabolic costs when exposed to experimental ocean acidification conditions, potentially limiting the energy available to support regulatory processes and behaviors. Decorator crabs expend energy on decoration camouflage and may face acute trade-offs under environmental stress. We hypothesized that under reduced pH conditions, decorator crabs will be energy limited and allocate energy towards growth and...

  • Wangpraseurt D., Lichtenberg M., Jacques S.L, Larkum A.WD, Kuhl M..  2019.  Optical properties of corals distort variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Plant Physiology. 179:1608-1619.
    Abstract Summary:

    Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorimetry is widely used in photobiological studies of corals, as it rapidly provides numerous photosynthetic parameters to assess coral ecophysiology. Coral optics studies have revealed the presence of light gradients in corals, which are strongly affected by light scattering in coral tissue and skeleton. We investigated whether coral optics affects variable chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence measurements and...

  • Chen H, Meshik AP, Pravdivtseva OV, Day JMD, Wang K.  2019.  Potassium isotope fractionation during the high-temperature evaporation determined from the Trinity nuclear test. Chemical Geology.
    Abstract Summary:

    Trinitite materials are the post-detonation glassy residues formed from melting and evaporation of arkosic sands during the first nuclear detonation at the Trinity test site, New Mexico on 16th July, 1945. These trinitites provide useful materials for studying elemental and isotopic behaviors associated with high temperature melting and evaporation that is otherwise difficult to be achieved under laboratory conditions. Using a high-precision...

  • Malfacini D., Patt J., Annala S., Harpsoe K., Eryilmaz F., Reher R., Crusemann M., Hanke W., Zhang H, Tietze D. et al..  2019.  Rational design of a heterotrimeric G protein subunit with artificial inhibitor sensitivity. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294:5747-5758.
    Abstract Summary:

    Transmembrane signals initiated by a range of extracellular stimuli converge on members of the Gq family of heterotrimeric G proteins, which relay these signals in target cells. Gq family G proteins comprise Gq, G11, G14, and G16, which upon activation mediate their cellular effects via inositol lipid-dependent and -independent signaling to control fundamental processes in mammalian physiology. To date, highly specific inhibition of Gq/11/14...

  • Negrete-Garcia G., Lovenduski N.S, Hauri C., Krumhardt K.M, Lauvset S.K.  2019.  Sudden emergence of a shallow aragonite saturation horizon in the Southern Ocean. Nature Climate Change. 9:313-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Models project that with current CO2 emission rates, the Southern Ocean surface will be undersaturated with respect to aragonite by the end of this century(1-4). This will result in widespread impacts on biogeochemistry and ocean ecosystems(5-7), particularly the health of aragonitic organisms, such as pteropods(7), which can dominate polar surface water communities(6). Here, we quantify the depth of the present-day Southern Ocean aragonite...

  • Rothe M.L, Li J., Garibay E., Moore BS, McKinnie S.MK.  2019.  Synthesis, bioactivity, and enzymatic modification of antibacterial thiotetromycin derivatives. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 17:3416-3423.
    Abstract Summary:

    Thiotetronate-containing natural products, including thiolactomycin, thiotetromycin, and thiotetroamide, are potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial compounds that target fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Natural modifications at the C-5 dialkyl position in this molecular series result in pronounced bioactivity differences. The C-5 acetamide-containing thiotetroamide, which is the more potent antibacterial agent in this family, is biosynthesized...

  • Manu-Marfo D., Aoudia A., Pachhai S., Kherchouche R..  2019.  3D shear wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Tyrrhenian basin and margins. Scientific Reports. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    The Tyrrhenian basin serves as a natural laboratory for back-arc basin studies in the Mediterranean region.Yet, little is known about the crust-uppermost mantle structure beneath the basin and its margins. Here, we present a new 3D shear-wave velocity model and Moho topography map for the Tyrrhenian basin and its margins using ambient noise cross-correlations. We apply a self-parameterized Bayesian inversion of Rayleigh group and phase...

  • Highlighted Publication Miriam Kastner with water sample aboard D/V Glomar Challenger
    Becker K., Austin J.A, Exon N., Humphris S., Kastner M., McKenzie J.A, Miller K.G, Suyehiro K., Taira A..  2019.  50 years of scientific ocean drilling. Oceanography. 32:17-21.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nearly a century after the first systematic study of the global ocean and seafloor by HMS Challenger (1871-1876), US scientists began to drill beneath the sea floor to unlock the secrets of the similar to 70% of Earth's surface covered by the seas. Fifty years of scientific ocean drilling by teams of international partners has provided unparalleled advancements in Earth sciences. Here, we briefly review the history, impacts, and scientific...

  • Hosokawa Y., Casa D.J, Trtanj J.M, Belval L.N, Deuster P.A, Giltz S.M, Grundstein A.J, Hawkins M.D, Huggins R.A, Jacklitsch B. et al..  2019.  Activity modification in heat: critical assessment of guidelines across athletic, occupational, and military settings in the USA. International Journal of Biometeorology. 63:405-427.
    Abstract Summary:

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) risk is a serious concern among athletes, laborers, and warfighters. US Governing organizations have established various activity modification guidelines (AMGs) and other risk mitigation plans to help ensure the health and safety of their workers. The extent of metabolic heat production and heat gain that ensue from their work are the core reasons for EHI in the aforementioned population. Therefore, the major...

  • Yang Q.Q, Ma Q., Herum K.M, Wang C.H, Patel N., Lee J., Wang S.S, Yen T.M, Wang J., Tang H.M et al..  2019.  Array atomic force microscopy for real-time multiparametric analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116:5872-5877.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nanoscale multipoint structure-function analysis is essential for deciphering the complexity of multiscale biological and physical systems. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows nanoscale structure-function imaging in various operating environments and can be integrated seamlessly with disparate probe-based sensing and manipulation technologies. Conventional AFMs only permit sequential single-point analysis; widespread adoption of array AFMs...

  • Sutton A.J, Feely R.A, Maenner-Jones S., Musielwicz S., Osborne J., Dietrich C., Monacci N., Cross J., Bott R., Kozyr A. et al..  2019.  Autonomous seawater pCO(2) and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends. Earth System Science Data. 11:421-439.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ship-based time series, some now approaching over 3 decades long, are critical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability to characterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomous marine carbon sensors and technologies over the last 2 decades have led to the expansion of observations at fixed time series sites, thereby improving the...

  • Le Voyer M., Hauri EH, Cottrell E., Kelley K.A, Salters V.JM, Langmuir C.H, Hilton DR, Barry PH, Füri E..  2019.  Carbon fluxes and primary magma CO2 contents along the global mid-ocean ridge system. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 20:1387-1424.
    Abstract Summary:

    The concentration of carbon in primary mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs), and the associated fluxes of CO2 outgassed at ocean ridges, is examined through new data obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) on 753 globally distributed MORB glasses. MORB glasses are typically 80-90% degassed of CO2. We thus use the limited range in CO2/Ba (81.3 +/- 23) and CO2/Rb (991 +/- 129), derived from undegassed MORB and MORB melt inclusions, to...

  • Straneo F, Sutherland D.A, Stearns L., Catania G., Heimbach P., Moons T., Capes M.R, Laidre K.L, Barber D., Rysgaard S. et al..  2019.  The case for a sustained Greenland Ice Sheet-Ocean Observing System (GrIOOS). Frontiers in Marine Science. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Rapid mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is affecting sea level and, through increased freshwater and sediment discharge, ocean circulation, sea-ice, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems around Greenland. Key to interpreting ongoing and projecting future ice loss, and its impact on the ocean, is understanding exchanges of heat, freshwater, and nutrients that occur at the GrIS marine margins. Processes governing these exchanges...

  • Chereskin TK, Rocha C.B, Gille ST, Menemenlis D., Passaro M..  2019.  Characterizing the transition from balanced to unbalanced motions in the Southern California current. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 124:2088-2109.
    Abstract Summary:

    As observations and models improve their resolution of oceanic motions at ever finer horizontal scales, interest has grown in characterizing the transition from the geostrophically balanced flows that dominate at large-scale to submesoscale turbulence and waves that dominate at small scales. In this study we examine the mesoscale-to-submesoscale (100 to 10km) transition in an eastern boundary current, the southern California Current System (...

  • Cape M.R, Vernet M, Pettit E.C, Wellner J., Truffer M., Akie G., Domack E., Leventer A., Smith C.R, Huber B.A.  2019.  Circumpolar deep water impacts glacial meltwater export and coastal biogeochemical cycling along the West Antarctic Peninsula. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Warming along the Antarctic Peninsula has led to an increase in the export of glacial meltwater to the coastal ocean. While observations to date suggest that this freshwater export acts as an important forcing on the marine ecosystem, the processes linking ice-ocean interactions to lower trophic-level growth, particularly in coastal bays and fjords, are poorly understood. Here, we identify salient hydrographic features in Barilari Bay, a west...

  • Highlighted Publication NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)
    Guzman-Morales J., Gershunov A.  2019.  Climate change suppresses Santa Ana winds of Southern California and sharpens their seasonality. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:2772-2780.
    Abstract Summary:

    We downscale Santa Ana winds (SAWs) from eight global climate models (GCMs) and validate key aspects of their climatology over the historical period. We then assess SAW evolution and behavior through the 21st century, paying special attention to changes in their extreme occurrences. All GCMs project decreases in SAW activity, starting in the early 21st century, which are commensurate with decreases in the southwestward pressure gradient force...

  • Johnson G.C, Purkey S.G, Zilberman N.V, Roemmich D..  2019.  Deep Argo quantifies bottom water warming rates in the southwest Pacific Basin. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:2662-2669.
    Abstract Summary:

    Data reported from mid-2014 to late 2018 by a regional pilot array of Deep Argo floats in the Southwest Pacific Basin are used to estimate regional temperature anomalies from a long-term climatology as well as regional trends over the 4.4years of float data as a function of pressure. The data show warm anomalies that increase with increasing pressure from effectively 0 near 2,000 dbar to over 10 (+/- 1)m degrees C by 4,800 dbar, uncertainties...